"How effectively did the Liberal Government (1906-14) deal with the problem of poverty?"
Higher Exam Essay- Higher "How effectively did the Liberal Government (1906-14) deal with the problem of poverty?" The Liberal Government dealt with poverty to a certain extent although they did not overcome the problem completely. The Liberals made changes that covered areas involving children, old age pensioners, the sick and the unemployed. The pace of the reform was slower in progressing with the "old liberals" than the "new liberals." The "new liberals" initiated help towards the problems of poverty in which the Booth and Rowntree had investigated. In 1906 when the Liberals came into power there was a considerable amount of pressure for change. The social investigations of Booth and Rowntree identified the extent of poverty, which clearly shows the beginning of the pressures. The Boer War was another event, which highlighted the poverty in Britain. The medical inspections during this time revealed the poor heath of the working class. (25% of volunteers were unsuitable and in many districts in Manchester 2/3 volunteers were rejected.) This encouraged people to support reform. The growth of the Labour party proved to be a threat to the Liberals as there was a growth in socialism. In addition this prompted the Liberals to push for state intervention, which would hopefully draw support from the Labour Party. When the "new" Liberals came into power this caused much
It could be argued that the employment tribunal system is a breach of Article 6, which is demonstrated in Smith v Secretary for Trade and Industry3 and in Scanfuture UK ltd v Secretary for State for Trade4 which led to the procedures
The European Convention for Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms is more commonly known as 'the Convention' was introduced by the Council of Europe in 1950 and was then enforced in 1953. The reason for the Convention being introduced was to prevent events which occurred during the World War Two from occurring again. The aim of the Convention was to protect individuals' rights against infringements by the state. The Human Rights Act 1998 developed Convention rights into UK domestic law through a restricted basis, the Act came into force on 2nd October 2000. Human Rights Act is set to have an immense amount of protection for both private and public sector employees. It means individuals can ascertain their Convention rights against the state in a UK court and no longer have to go to Strasbourg. However if domestic legislation is unambiguous and can not be interpreted in accordance with Convention, the domestic statute takes precedence.1 It's unlawful for public authority to act in a way which is incompatible with Convention rights. There are situations were the court has decided that primary legislation is incompatible with Convention rights which then leads to a 'declaration of compatibility' being issued. An Employment Tribunal can not make a declaration of incompatibility, therefore employment cases have to wait until they have reached Court of
Political Rights and Duties.
Rights and Duties Different political creeds have different approaches to questions of rights and entitlements. Conservatives talk more of duties than rights, and when talking of the latter are likely to place emphasis on freedom from state interference and rights of property. Liberal Democrats often talk of citizens, people who have rights by virtue of their membership of society; they are committed to the defence of civil liberties, and favour action to protect minority groups from various forms of discrimination. Socialists have traditionally spoken of collective rights, of assembly, of industrial action and of welfare, among other things; they are less sympathetic to rights of property. In recent years, however, the Labour Party has placed a new emphasis upon the defence of rights, be they those of racial or other minorities or the civil liberties which they believe have been seriously eroded in the Thatcher years. In the Smith-Blair era, they have committed themselves to incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights into British law. Tony Blair has, however, done something unusual for a Labour leader; he has placed much more emphasis upon people's obligations towards society, and he frequently talks of duties and obligations, as well as entitlements. Implications of the incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights (enshrined in the
"By 1928 the essentials of democracy had been achieved." How far would you agree?
Amdg Laura Sermanni History essay 11/09/04 "By 1928 the essentials of democracy had been achieved." How far would you agree? Democracy is definable as a form of government where there is a fair representation system, universal adult suffrage, the right of the electorate to participate in the political process, freedom of speech for all, a government dependant on majority support in the commons and regular elections, free of corruption. In the eighteen hundreds various events, such as the French revolution, made many Britons wary of democracy, because of the radicalism and violence that had occurred during them. However by 1900 politicians were eager to be seen as champions of democracy. The electoral system in Britain before the 1932 reform bill had been virtually unchanged since the late 1680s, by comparison to a country whose economy, class system and political methods had changed substantially since that time. The principle reason for the great change in the orientation of the country was the Industrial Revolution, which had created a new economy and caused the emergence of new cities such as Manchester and Birmingham where the new factories were centred. However, because the electoral system was still that which had been formulated in 1682, these new towns had no political representation, while towns, which had
"Equal Rights vs. Special Rights" The topics of the extent a homosexuals civil rights should be stated has become a topic in congress
Amy Stephens Sociology November 11, 2005 "Equal Rights vs. Special Rights" The topics of the extent a homosexuals civil rights should be stated has become a topic in congress more so than ever. The civil rights preventing a person from being fired from a job for being gay and the right of an apartment owner to deny a person from renting from them for being a homosexual has been heated arguments for years now. There are not many public "facts" on these topics but the truth is, that to make a decision on these topics you have to look inside yourself and search your own beliefs and morals. At the employment nondiscrimination act for senates on September 9, 1996, representatives from all the states got together to discuss these topics and then vote on whether to amend the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Some people might agree with a known republican from the state of Rhode Island, Mr. Chafee, that the only factor that should be considered in the work place is the ability of an employee or potential employee to do the job at hand. Since Sexual orientation, like race or ethnicity, has nothing to do with the job ability, it seems that it has no place as a basis for discrimination. I am sure that everyone has heard the arguments about whether or not people who are homosexuals are born that way or if it is a behavior in which they have developed or were taught. I cannot say for
How much power does the Supreme court really have?
How Much Power Does The Supreme Court Really Have? In the court case Worcester v. Georgia, the U.S. Supreme Court held in 1832 that the Cherokee Indians constituted a nation holding distinct sovereign powers. Although the decision became the foundation of the principle of tribal sovereignty in the twentieth century, it also helped the Judicial Branch realize that the system of Checks and Balances would not work in this case. They were able to pass a law that began the tribal sovereignty but with out the Executive Branch enforcing the law, it was useless. This essay is going to contain the historical background, the branches that were involved and how it leads to checks and balances and the historical significance to America. In the 1830s the Cherokee Indians used the U.S. Legal system to assert their treaty rights and seek protection from the encroachment of the Georgia state government. In Cherokee nation v. Georgia, and Worcester v. Georgia, the U.S. Supreme Court wrestled with the issue of Indian tribal sovereignty. In Cherokee nation, the Cherokee contended that they were a foreign state and therefore could sue the state of Georgia in Federal Court under diversity jurisdiction. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Federal Courts had no jurisdiction over such a case because Indian tribes were merely "domestic dependent nations" existing "in a state of pupilage. Their
What are the advantages & disadvantages of secondary legislation.
"What are the advantages & disadvantages of secondary legislation" When looking at the question of the advantages and disadvantages of Secondary Legislation it is first important to establish its advantages and disadvantages as compared to what. That is, what are the other types of legislation that command over what goes on in a society? Once this has been established it is then important to look at these different and see how they differ. Deciphering what makes a particular type of legislation that type can do this. Who makes the type of legislation? How is it implemented and to what degree of the law can it be executed. When this has been done it will be quite clear as to how one type of legislation can be more of an advantage to society than another. When this has been completed it will then be necessary to look at the role of Parliament in the implementation of Secondary Legislation. It will have to be established whether secondary legislation takes away from the law making power of Parliament. Once this has been done an analysis into how widely Secondary Legislation is used will answer the question of whether Parliament is abdicating from its power. In the UK there is a system of checks a balances so that no on e organ of government can dominate the legislative process. In order to facilitate the workings of Parliament delegated legislation is used to speed up the
Citizenship and rights history
Citizenship Citizens are members of a certain state and are formally recognised by that state. The concept of citizenship is therefore legalistic. Citizens are individuals who have a legal status within the state. They are granted certain rights and in return must perform certain duties. The range and balance between the rights granted and duties they are supposed to perform, vary from state to state and time to time. For example, in war time the rights and obligations of a citizen would be different that of a citizen in peace time. Natural Rights Natural rights are rights that political philosophers argue are universally applicable to all societies. The origins of these rights is said to be found in the essential nature of human beings or in laws given by God. John Locke argued that before there were political societies, human beings existed in a state of nature in which god-given natural laws and rights existed. These laws and rights were to be the basis of societies that were created in the future. Locke claimed that life, liberty and property were natural rights. Problems with these rights are that it is hard to prove that a state of nature ever existed Positive Rights Some political philosophers believe that the only rights that exist are rights given to citizens by the state. Positive rights require actions on the part of others. For example the right to
Explain the difference between act and rule Utilitarianism.
Utilitarianism Explain the difference between act and rule Utilitarianism. (33 marks) Utilitarianism, in its most basic form is ' the greatest happiness for the greatest number'. Coming from the Latin word, 'utilis', which means useful. Jeremy Bentham wrote, in one of his books in 1789, that utility is, 'a property in any object, whereby it tends to produce benefit, advantage, pleasure, good, or happiness...or... to prevent the happenings of mischief, pain, evil, or unhappiness'. It is easy to assume that utilitarianism is based on the fact that if something is useful, then it is moral. However, this is very wrong, the theory is much more complex than this, being involved in decisions, actions and consequences. The theory of Utilitarianism was developed by Jeremy Bentham, in his work, 'The principles of morals and legislation', which was a mix of ethics and politics, both of which he was very interested in. Bentham was hedonist, and felt that happiness and pleasure was the main ethical measure. He believed that if an action is pleasant, bringing about happiness for the individual and others, then it is morally right. Bentham attempted to better the 'Golden rule' taught by Jesus, which was to love out neighbour as ourselves. He wanted to better this as he felt that in loving our neighbour, and in a moral situation, resolving a problem by loving a neighbour could
It has been suggested by the law commission and others that the sections 18, 20 and 47 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 should be repealed because they are unjust, ineffective, illogical and severely defective - Explain and comment.
Ciaran Rooney It has been suggested by the law commission and others that the sections 18, 20 and 47 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 should be repealed because they are unjust, ineffective, illogical and severely defective. In addition the offences, as they are defined are incomprehensible to juries. Explain and comment on these suggestions. It could be said that the Offences under the 1861 Act are unjust because of the sentencing structure. The maximum sentence for S.47 is the same as S.20, five years which seems unjust because S.47 can be as little as causing someone discomfort through injury, whereas s.20 at worst can be as serious as a loss of a limb which is a vast scale of injury for a similar sentence. An area of the offences which is unjust, illogical and defective is some of the words used in the statute. Because the act is nearly 150 years old the language used is very archaic and misleading for juries. The mens rea for S.20 use words such as 'maliciously' and 'inflict' which is unclear as the language is severely outdated. The courts have partially overcome this by looking at definitions of words from dictionaries of similar period to 1861 Act, however this benefit is not available for the jury and can lead to a lot of confusion combined with words such as Grievous and wounding. Another main word that is misleading is the use of 'assault' in the S.47