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AS and A Level: Legal personnel
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course as for the others, such as BA courses, may not have all the key subjects in the course. Before taking the next stage of training, students must demonstrate that they have covered the same key subjects at University as solicitors. To become a barrister you need a good class degree, as competition is high; at least 2II is required. The law students need to decide whether they want to be barristers while at university, as all applications go to the Bar Vocational Course, this must be made in the first term of the last year at university. However, with student with non-law degrees can also become barristers but the process takes a year longer to complete.
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is a requirement of justice'. Involuntary actions give way to the general defence of automatism, which concerns situations where the defendant did not control their actions as they were caused by an external factor. If the defence of automatism is successful, it will lead to full acquittal. This was seen in T 1990, where the courts accepted post-traumatic stress as suitable for automatism as it was caused by the external factor of rape. This shows that English law is concerned with the concept of fault to a high degree as there are defences for not only the mens rea of a crime, which will be discussed earlier, but also the actus reus.
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or Multi Track procedure (claim value �15,000-�50000), or at the High Court of Justice (although this is unlikely given that the claimant must reasonably expect to recover �50,000 or more), subject to the perceived gravity and complexity of the case and the amounts claimed therein. Peter's claim for the theft of his camera would be dealt with by the County Court under the small claims procedure, on the fairly safe assumption that his loss is valued at less than �5000.
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In due course it could be argued that the ECJ has developed into a political court. However, the provision for individuals to protect their own Community law rights is limited. The EC Treaty provides for the European Commission or a Member State to bring an action against a defaulting State under Articles 226-2275 but again these provisions are of limited effectiveness, in particularly concerning the enforcement of individual's rights. The foremost difficulty was that the Commission or other Member States might not be alert of a breach; the Commission is a small weak body, which has limited resources, and for that reason cannot monitor compliance of every measure of Community law.
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Should Barristers and Solicitors Fusion or remain as two separate professions? The professions of barrister and solicitor are separate and the work is different4 star(s)
On the other hand, solicitors can give legal advice to the public- so people can directly contact them, still do paper work ( such as prepare cases, appeals, write letters, contracts and wills) and meet all clients even in prison, interview and phone witnesses and clients. There are still many differences, such as the professional body for each profession, the basic qualifications, the practical training, method of training, relationship with client and liability. However, both of them have full rights to advocacy.
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The fees for this are about 7000 pounds and this will lead to the vocational stage. If you are a non graduate and want to become a solicitor you must take the Institute of Legal Executive route and take exams part 1 and 2 as well as work in a solicitors firm for 5 years. To become a barrister you must take a 2 year CPE course in law. This will then lead you to the vocational stage. At the vocational stage if you are training to be a solicitor you must take a Legal Practice Course (LPC) which is a 1 year course full time and 2 years part time.
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Griffiths' point was that judges tend to support the establishment. However, academic Simon Lee argues that these ideas are far too simplistic to apply to all judges. He states that although the majority of judges are in fact old, white, middle classed men, it does not necessarily mean they will all think the same. Although Simon Lees point that judicial bias needs to be proved is valid, there has however been research into the limited class background of judges. Research found that in 1995, 80% of high ranking judges were educated at Oxbridge and since 1997, 80% were educated in a public school.
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The jury must come to a unanimous or majority decision in order to conclude a verdict. Juries are used in all criminal cases at first instance in the Crown Court. They try the most serious indictable offences such as murder and also either way offences such as theft, both of which, where the defendants plead not guilty. Summary offences such as driving without a licence are heard in the Magistrates Courts, so in reality only 5% of criminal cases are tried in the Crown Court and in many of these cases defendants plead not guilty so there is no need for a jury.
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Explain how judges are appointed and how the courts and legal service act 1990 along with other acts have affected the selection and training, also discuss the argument that judges are old white and mainly male who are out of touch with society.3 star(s)
The superior judge and an inferior judge. Inferior judges consist of District judges, Circuit judges and Stipendiary judges. These types of judges, are all the starting point in becoming a superior judge. An inferior judge applies for their position though newspaper advertisements. The minimum period that you must have been a solicitor or barrister is ten years. You must also fit the right qualities given out by the Lord Chancellors office. Before an inferior judge sits on a case, they must have permission to do so by the Lord Chancellor. Because the Lord Chancellor still has direct control over the inferior judges, sometimes they can easily be persuaded to swing a case a particular way in cases that is governmentally orientated.
- Word count: 1071