• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How and why do pressure groups target the EU?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How and why do pressure groups target the EU? (20) The definition of a pressure group is an organized collection of people who seek to influence political decisions and policy, without seeking election to public office. To be successful in their aims, a pressure group must lobby those in power, and since, nowadays, many of the key decisions regarding certain policy areas are made in Brussels by the EU, pressure groups cannot ignore the EU. Since the EU operates on a pluralist basis, in which a variety of demands and interests are heard, and since pressure groups are a component of a pluralist democracy, the role of pressure groups is important within the EU. Pressure groups may target and lobby several different institutions within the EU to achieve their aims. For example, the most popular target of pressure groups is the Commission. The Commission has become more accessible and receptive to lobbyists, mainly due to the expansion of their responsibilities. It has a monopoly on the initiative in Community decision-making: since it has the power to draft initiatives, it makes it ideally suited as an arena for interest representation. ...read more.

Middle

at the EU level - national officials are often much more open to the influences of pressure groups than the officials in EU. Pressure groups can also occasionally lobby the European Court of Justice in certain cases where the ramifications of a judgement could affect the EU as a whole. The controversial cases bought to ECJ often attract considerable pressure group support (this is mostly common for civil liberties pressure groups). Examples of pressure groups and their effect on the EU in terms of the European Court of Justice include the recent ruling on rights of carers of disabled people. Since the 1986 Single European Act, the momentum towards closer integration, especially in the economic and monetary union, has significantly increased. Treaties such as the Single European Act and Maastricht served to deepen and widen the responsibilities of the EU. The completion of the single market, the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty and subsequent treaties, the adoption of the Social Chapter, the launch of the single currency, the development of a constitutional treaty (now the Lisbon Treaty) ...read more.

Conclusion

One such problem is that of transparency and the influence of larger pressure groups. While some small pressure groups lobby the EU for their cause, they are often pushed out of the scene by larger pressure groups with more finance and influence, and therefore more power. This is especially true of pressure groups campaigning for the environment: as said by Yiorgos Vassalos of the Corporate Europe Observatory, while many environmental pressure groups are campaigning for the reduction of emissions, they often have much less influence than the car industry, who oppose the new legislation. In conclusion, it can be seen that pressure groups do play a very significant role in the initiating stages of policy-making. Pressure groups are extremely important and involved at every stage of the EU, most especially at the initial stage of formulating policy. The increase in pressure group representation in the EU indicates the growth in importance that pressure groups have attached to Europe. The pace of development towards greater integration has intensified and so activists have increasingly understood the importance of the EU in decision-making affecting their organisations. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Miscellaneous section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Miscellaneous essays

  1. The different functions and responsibilities of each of the institutions

    However, the less important decisions may be adopted without debate, as long as the permanent representatives and commission representatives are unanimous. Also assisted by COREPER and a General Secretariat and consisting of heads of state or government, the president of the EEC Commission, foreign affairs ministers and members of the Commission.

  2. Planning, Design and Production Phases of the Construction Industry

    > External Works Now the house is finished the cleaning up process can begin and my team of specialists can begin work on the aesthetics of the building can begin. Landscaping the front and back garden is completed and if required on the particular building the driveway will be laid with brick paving.

  1. Outline the main changes and developments in American Stage Music from “Showboat” to “West ...

    This is perhaps testament to the skills of Rodgers and Hammerstein, both masters of their crafts, as they also introduced dance as an important aspect of the storyline, something that was broadened in "West Side Story". The 1950's saw the popularity of the American Musical continue to grow and with it came the epic "West Side Story".

  2. Customer experience management in UK higher education

    and increasing external pressures, for the benefit of experience teaching and learning. For example, one of the ways in which academics can engage critically with the promotion entrepreneurship in higher education is incorporated notions on a curriculum. To do this, it is necessary reject charged abstractions provided by responsible policymakers and think about the reinvention of the curriculum.

  1. Contemporary Construction - Economics and Finance

    (skilled, semi-skilled workers), such as bricklayers, carpenters, and equipment operators, but also those who supply the service like architects, engineers and other professionals and technicians. 3. Capital Capital in an economic sense is different from "capital" in accounting aspects. Capital is the goods used to produce further goods and/or services.

  2. The European Travel Market

    The economic attraction of the resort is that you can pick up a deal in a 2 star accommodation for �300 to �400. Once at the resort the food, drink and activity prices are relatively cheap. Seaside Resort - Malia Malia is a seaside resort based in the Greek island of Crete.

  1. The Diversity of the Leisure Industry

    In the UK, the top five most popular active leisure activities are walking (with over 40% of the population participating), swimming (with over 30% of the population participating), keep-fit/yoga (with over 20% of the population participating), cycling (with over 20% of the population participating)

  2. "Why has there been a substantial increase in the adopted population of children born ...

    , Hepatitis A, B and C , HIV ( common in children form Cambodia, Romania, China and Viet Nam), Syphilis, Parasites, Helicobacter pylori and reflux esophagitis, Lead poisoning, Alcohol related Neurodevelopment disorders, Malnutrition, rickets, iron deficiency, anemia, zinc deficiency, scabies and eczema.5 In 2001, of the children adopted from overseas,

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work