• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent has the EU become more integrated since 1992?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To what extent has the EU become more integrated since 1992? (20) The integration (strengthening of cooperation between EU member states as national governments to allow for the gradual centralisation of power within European institutions) of member states of the European Union is a highly politicised issue in Europe. To some extent, the EU has become more integrated since the ascension of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. One policy area which has resulted in greater integration within the EU is the single currency. The Maastricht Treaty aimed to introduce a single currency within the EU by setting criteria which member states had to achieve to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the introduction of a single currency. Despite the withdrawal of the UK and Italy from the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) in September 1992, it did lead successfully to the introduction of the Euro into the economies of eleven of the member states, as well as successive intakes of four other countries into the 'Eurozone'. ...read more.

Middle

After its creation by the six founding states in 1957 (following the establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community) the EU has grown to 27 member states. There have been five enlargements, with the largest occurring in 2004, when 10 new member states joined. Enlargement can be seen as promoting integration within the EU, as not only does it synchronise several policy areas (during the period of time where the membership criteria are fulfilled) and aids democracy in new members, but it also supports the European economy as a whole. Suggestions of a common European foreign and defence policy, as well as common foreign affairs policies, have also sparked further integration within the EU. Although the EU is not a state in itself, there are a number of multi-national military and peacekeeping forces which are ultimately under the command of the EU, and therefore can be seen as the core for a future 'EU army'. ...read more.

Conclusion

Lisbon Treaty: with increasing co-decision powers, national vetoes may be removed in such key areas as migration, criminal justice and judicial and police cooperation, encouraging greater collaboration amongst EU member states. To some extent, however, the EU has not become more integrated since the ascension of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. One way in which this can be seen is through the increasing amount of opt-outs available in certain policy areas. In general, EU law is valid in all 27 EU member states; however, occasionally member states negotiate certain opt-outs from areas of certain treaties of the EU, meaning they do not participate in the common structure in these fields. The most significant opt-outs have included Denmark, Sweden and the UK's opt-outs of the single currency; and the UK and Ireland's opt-out of the Schengen Agreement. These opt-outs have hindered integration within the EU, providing for a two-speed Europe by allowing closer cooperation between countries wanting to forge ahead on certain area and leaving others behind. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Miscellaneous section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Miscellaneous essays

  1. Customer experience management in UK higher education

    (Perry 2001 91) Critical Reactions and Academic Activism The commercialisation of the university has sparked a reaction critical at different scales. Some scholars have referred to this process in which education has been reduced to accommodate financial need and consumer demand, as 'Academic capitalism'.

  2. Distinguish between direct and representative democracy

    This is an example of when representative democracy backfires, not by making the wrong decision but for acting on it without discussion with the people.

  1. Miller sets out in The Crucible to create a totally unsympathetic character in Abigail. ...

    And you know I can do it....."., people are afraid of her, actually rises in social status -people believe she is actually doing good, Wonder what she hopes to achieve after john Procter branneds her a whore, surely she does not belive he will want to be with her?

  2. Why did the desegregation of schools become a major problem in the USA in ...

    as black children or to be taught by a black teacher as they would find the idea of a white child being disciplined by a black teacher impossible.

  1. Investigating The Use of Pectinase

    3.51cm3 and from this I can see that the results of each repeat are not very similar. However, when an average is made from the three the total average volume of juice produced has risen by 0.77cm3 since 20�C. This is already an indication that increasing temperatures can increase enzyme

  2. Origins of Statutory Regulations and Controls

    - Each document contains; gives general advice on how each building material and the associated works are expected to perform in order to comply with the requirement, and, they show examples and give solutions on how to accomplish the requirements for some of the common building circumstances.

  1. To what extent is Jimmy(TM)s behaviour explained by the time he lived in?

    Therefore, Jimmy's awareness of inactivity can be explained by the time he lived in, and is as a result justified. In addition, Jimmy's need for change reflects the period, which had again become set into class distinctions with the shallowness and falseness of post-Victorian values still influencing the state.

  2. How does building policy in Wales compare with policy in Scotland in terms of ...

    Also, smaller private builds are more aware of sustainable technologies and often meet levels 5 and 6 of the CSH. This has shown me that more commercial architects and planners are not focused on the sustainable targets of the country or even the build; however some outlying builds go beyond the regulations.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work