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Anatomy and physiology

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Anatomy and physiology Scott Barnes 1A)Protection :- This where the skeleton is used to protect vital organs. The ribs are used in this to protect the lungs and heart and they are attached to the thick bone called the sternum. The pelvis is also used to protect the reproductive organs. Movement :- The skeleton is used to move the whole body anywhere. Every bone in the body is used for movement but the most important ones are the vertebrae, femur, tibia, fibula (legs) humorous, ulna and radius (arms). Storage :- Bones store calcium which is needed to live and it is a core component of bone. It is stored in the centre of the bone and is used to replace dead and damaged bone. Attachment for muscles :- the body cannot move without the help of muscles and so the muscles are attached to the bone and grow with the bone. ...read more.


This usually happens in late adolescence. 1c)Bone is constantly reforming itself after it is first formed. Remodelling occurs when a bone is worn or injured and can take place in different body regions and at different rates. In a human there is a very fine balance between the activity of osteoclasts which remove calcium from the bones and osteoblasts which deposit calcium in the bone. If osteoclasts are over active you can get weak bones and they become flexible and break easily. When osteoblasts become over active you can get thick bumps or spurs in the bone which can interfere with the movement of joints. There are a number of factors which affect bone replacement and growth which are :- Calcium :- and phosphorus salts are primary components of bone and so must be included in your diet in order to have a healthy lifestyle and have an equilibrium between osteobalsts and osteoclasts. ...read more.


They are biaxial joints and 1 example is the thumb. Condyloid joint :- These joints allow a lot of movement except rotation. It is named condyloid because it is a condyle containing joint. This is a curved process which goes into other bones to give its articulating movement. This joint is found in the hand and jaw. Ball and socket joint :- A rounded bone goes into a cup shaped socket which allows free movement in every direction. It is found in the hips and shoulder. 2c) When a tennis player takes a serve there are 4 joints involved in the arm action. The first is the saddle joint which is found in the thumb and used to grip the racket tightly. Then there is a condyloid joint in the wrist which helps you flick the racket over the ball. The third is the hinge joint found in the elbow which helps you bend your arm and get over the ball and give it power. The last is the ball and socket joint which is in the shoulder and allows your arm to rotate and provide power to the server. ...read more.

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