Hydration and Sports Performance. Conditions caused by lack of fluids
Hydration and Sports Performance Signs and symptoms Water is the most important nutrient, particularly for athletes, this is because water makes up 85% of the body. It is important to keep hydrated before, after and during exercise this is because an athlete can lose up to 1 litre of water per hour during endurance exercise. Therefore re-hydration is essential especially in a hot environment. The symptoms of hydration are: * Thirst * Decreased blood volume * Concentrated urine * Difficulty concentrating * Dizziness * Breathing difficulties * Confusion and poor speech * Muscle spasms * Tingling and numbness of limbs * Renal failure * Death Conditions caused by lack of fluids Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise, lasting a few seconds to several minutes. They can occur after exercise of up to 2 hours and are often the result of fluid loss or inadequate salt intake when sweating heavily. An example of muscle cramps occurring during exercise is when footballers go into extra time during competitive games. Many footballers go experience cramp during extra time of a match because they are exceeding the amount of time they usually play for and are loosing more fluids than what the body is used to. To over come cramp they need to stretch out their muscles and hydrate themselves
Anatomy and Physiology.
Complementary Therapies BSc (Hons) Level One Semester 2 Module: Anatomy and Physiology Course Tutor: Heidi Yates Sharna Richardson. Contents Sections Title Page 0.0 Introduction .0 2 Introduction The purpose of this report is to enable me to review and consolidate what I have previously learnt and, through personal research, to study some aspects of muscle physiology in further depth. My report consists of a brief description of how bone growth occurs, referring to the process of ossification, the role of cartilage, calcium homeostasis and the factors, which cause the skeleton to undergo a spurt of growth in puberty. The report then moves on to describe clearly, with the use of diagrams, the movements possible in a synovial. The joints described are the knee and the hip joint. A fully labelled and annotated diagram of these synovial joints is included. Finally, my report explains clearly the events leading up to contraction of a muscle fibre, and includes labelled diagrams to explain the process. There is also a large diagram showing the structure of a skeletal muscle, which is fully labelled and offers brief explanatory notes on each part of the structure. Task 1 - The Growth of the Skeleton The skeletal system of the body provides support and protection, it allows body movements, and is the site of blood cell production and stores minerals and
Treatment to Joint Ventures Under The European Commission On Merger Regulations.
"To evaluate in an individual case whether the formation of a joint venture in the production field restricts potential competition, the commission may use a checklist of questions with respect to each of the parties..."1 A joint venture could be used to describe practically any commercial agreement concerning two or more firms. In other words, this is the coming together of two or more undertakings (parents) in order to achieve a goal by integrating part of their operations and putting it under joint control. Joint ventures cover wide commercial activities, ranging from full-merger like activities, to activities limited to some functions which include research and development (R &D), production and distribution and so on.2 Co-operation between undertakings which are on the same level in the market may not always necessarily be anti-competitive. Co-operation between such firms may, in some circumstances facilitate economies of scale and even encourage new products to be brought into the market. Competition authorities such as the commission, usually encourage such co-operations however, keep a watchful eye against concerted practices which are not in line with the market. Examples of such agreements or Joint ventures encouraged by the commission include where two or more parties put their resources together in order to develop a project. This may only be limited in time to
Identify and justify the key components of fitness.
IDENTIFY AND JUSTIFY THE KEY COMPONENTS OF FITNESS Fitness is the ability to cope effectively with the stresses of everyday life; it helps contribute to an overall healthy lifestyle. Fitness is made up of components, which can be divided into health related components, and skill related components. Health related fitness could benefit everyone to a certain degree as each component is contributing towards a healthier body. The components which help to do this are; aerobic capacity, flexibility, strength and body composition. Skill related components are more dedicated to sport performers who try to develop these skills through training. Skill related components include power, speed, reaction time, balance, agility and coordination. Health related components Aerobic capacity - This is the maximum amount of oxygen that can be taken in and used by the body during prolonged periods of participation in that activity. In football this is used through out the game as the body is usually always on the move, and so the cardiac and vascular system must be fit enough to cope with the gaseous exchange. Flexibility - This is the range of movement around a joint and depends on the stretch allowed by the ligaments and tendons surrounding the joint. Being flexible helps increase your performance and limits injury risk as stiffness is decreased around the joint area. In football keepers
Flexibility Practical "Flexibility is the range of motion of a joint or series of joints and their associated muscles. It involves the ability to move a part of the body through the full range of motion allowed by normal disease free joints."(www.adtdl.army.mn) There are different types of flexibility, according to Kurz: * Dynamic flexibility (Kinetic flexibility): This is the ability to perform dynamic (or kinetic) movements of the muscles to bring a limb through its full range of motion in the joints. * Static-active flexibility (Active flexibility): This is the ability to assume and maintain extended positions using only the tension of the agonists and synergists while the agonists are being stretched. E.g. lifting the leg and keeping it high without any external support (other than your own leg muscles). * Static-passive flexibility (Passive flexibility): This is the ability to assume extended position and then maintain them using only your weight, the support of your limbs, or some other apparatus. Active flexibility is harder to develop than passive flexibility; not only does active flexibility require passive flexibility in order to assume an initial extended position, it also requires muscle strength to be able to hold and maintain that position. * Factors limiting flexibility: * Internal influences: -The type of joint (some joints aren't meant to be
The effects of Rheumatoid Arthritis on joints.
THE EFFECTS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS ON JOINTS. This subject has been chosen because the writer feels the need to clarify the cause and effects of the disease Rheumatoid arthritis and dispel a few myths about it being an old peoples disease of the bones, personal experience has taught that this is not the case at all. Most people hear the word Arthritis and think immediately of old people with bad joints. In the case of Rheumatoid Arthritis this would be far from the truth. Rheumatoid arthritis starts with a factor in the blood, believed to be passed genetically, which you are either born with or not. If you have the factor you can be totally unaware until you reach old age, equally you can become rapidly debilitated in your youth. Many researchers in the medical profession believe that an allergic reaction to something can be the key that activates this disease and personal experience seems to substantiate this. Rheumatoid arthritis affects more than 350,000 people in Britain alone, arthritis research campaign online (2003). To give a brief description of how Rheumatoid arthritis works, a joint is where two bones meet and are covered with cartilage to allow them to move easily and without causing any friction, the cartilage also acts as a shock absorber. The joint is surrounded by the synovium (a membrane), which produces a thick fluid (synovial fluid), which acts as a
Health Related Fitness Cardiovascular Fitness - This is to do with the heart and blood vessels providing oxygen to working muscles
Adam Garner 11A Health Related Fitness Cardiovascular Fitness - This is to do with the heart and blood vessels providing oxygen to working muscles for long periods of time. Having an advantage in this component of HRF allows a person to train and compete for longer without getting tired or out of breath. Footballers are good examples of sportspeople that need this ability. Flexibility - The range of movement around a joint. This allows performers to carry out the correct techniques, performances and decreases the risk of injury. Gymnasts need this component of HRF. Somatotype - This is describing the person's body shape on a scale of 1-7. The 3 types of somatotypes are Endomorph ( dumpy wide hips, ) Mesomorph ( high proportion of muscle ) and Ectomorph ( thin and slim hips ) The type of your body can effect the choice of sport or your ability to perform to the best in a specific sport. For example a 20 stone man built for a prop in rugby couldn't take up horse racing and be as successful as a 9 stone man built for horse riding. Muscular Strength - The amount of force and muscle a person is able to exert against any type of resistance. Boxers and weightlifters are good examples of sports people that would need this component of HRF for their sport. Muscular Endurance - The ability of the muscles to contract and relax continuously over long periods of time. Bikers are
The Roman period - woodcraft.
The Roman period involved the use of tools such as saws, drills, and chisels, and different kinds of joints. Finished products of the many hours spent by carpenters do not exist in large quantities simply because wood does not survive long enough. What does survive, in addition to a small number of wooden objects, are the remains of some of the tools used in woodworking and descriptions of them and their uses in text. Since screws were not yet in use in woodworking during Roman times, joining two pieces of wood was generally done through the use of joints. A joint is the way of joining two separate pieces of wood at an angle, or making a long piece of wood out of two smaller ones. The choice of specific types of joints was made based on the wood available and what use it would serve. Joints were made to withstand tension, compression, or torsion. Tension is the stress caused by a force exerting a pulling action, compression is the stress caused by a force pushing two objects together, and torsion is the stress caused by a force twisting or turning on both sides. The joints were not made, however, to withstand all three of these stresses at the same time. The saddle joint is a frequently used joint because it is one of the simplest. This joint is done by making matching, opposing notches in two pieces so they can be joined at a ninety degree angle. This saddle joint was
Muscle fatigue and Muscle fibre type
Muscle fatigue and Muscle fibre type Introduction The objective of this lab report was to investigate the relationship between muscle fatigue and the proportion of fast twitch fibres. Human muscles are made up of a mixture of different fibre types: Fast Twitch oxidative, Fast twitch oxidative Glycolytic and Slow Twitch. The method used was action potential propagation velocity of motor axons in the ulnar nerve. The conduction velocity in a nerve is the speed at which the impulse travels along it. "The larger the diameter of the fibre the faster the nerve impulse will travel." "Each action potential arriving in the motor nerve always produces a muscle action potential, which then spreads along the membrane of the muscle fibre giving rise to a contraction of that fibre. Because of their relatively small size, it is difficult to record the electrical activity of nerve fibres themselves at the surface of skin close to the fibre. This problem can be overcome by recording the electrical activity of the muscle fibres innervated by the nerve instead."(Physiolgical systems accessed on 21/11/04).,The electromyogram (EMG) is relatively easy to record since detectable electrical currents flow across the skin surface above the body of the muscle. Hypothesis That there is a relationship between the portions of fast twitch fibres and muscle fatigue. Methods See sheets attached in
The effects of Anabolic Steroids
Drugs There are different types of drugs, but I am going to write about the effects of Anabolic Steroids. Anabolic Steroids Description: Anabolic steroids are performance enhancing drugs. They are a synthetic form of the chemical testosterone that is normally found in the body. By taking anabolic steroids, a person's testosterone level can be raised up to a hundred times more than the usual amount of 2.5 to 10 mg. per day. The increase in testosterone increases anabolic activity, which results in greater muscle bulk. It also increases protein synthesis and androgenic activity (enhanced secondary sexual characteristics) in males. The users of steroids want to increase the anabolic effects and reduce the androgenic effects, but no steroid is known to have just anabolic effects. Use: Anabolic steroids can be taken in two ways, by injection or they can be taken orally. Both oral and injected steroids carry benefits and adverse effects. Orally taken steroids are well absorbed into the stomach and they are excreted fairly rapidly. The bad side of taking oral steroids is that they are more toxic than injected steroids. They are highly potent, which makes the risk of overdosing very high. Steroids that are injected are less toxic to the liver and are less potent than oral steroids on an equal dosage basis. Injected steroids have a delayed take up, which makes them