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Female Participation in Sport

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Introduction

Development Stage - Introduction For this part of the investigation a planned research report has to be carried out. Many resources will be accessed such as the internet and books. Effective research techniques will be applied and a report will be produced. The topic which is going to be investigated is female participation rates in sport. By looking at many different sports such as hockey, athletics and basketball I will be able to see the struggles woman have had to become an equal force in the sporting world which they are today seeing as in the past the woman was not on a level playing field to men and where seen as giving children to men and putting their meals on the table for their husbands. Straight from the outset this idea was suggested as in the cavemen days the males where known as the "hunter gatherer". This idea of the "hunter gatherer" allows you to understand why at first the males where so superior to the females. When hunting the males would have to throw spears, wrestle animals in order to kill them for food etc. These actions gave males a superior head start considering the first events in the Olympics in Ancient Greece was events closely linked to the jobs entailed in hunting. For example, throwing events such as the javelin, the hammer throw etc and also wrestling events. The first Olympics to take place were in 776BC and women were excluded. "Bicycling has done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world. ...read more.

Middle

But while media attention has focused on the appointment of Karren Brady as Managing Director of Birmingham City in 1993 and the role of Delia Smith as a Director at Norwich City, little heed has been paid to other influential posts held by women. A selection of these include Chairperson at Tranmere Rovers, Chief Executive at Colchester United, Club President at Bristol City and an Executive Director at Birmingham City. Within the current Championship (previously Division 1) are two female Directors, a Chief Executive and a Director of Operations. At League 1 clubs (formerly Division 2) women fill posts as Club President, Vice President, Chairperson, Chief Executive, General Manager and two Associate Directors. In Scotland, the Chief Executive at Greenock Morton and the General Manager at Livingston are women. In rugby league, a quintessentially male sport, Hull currently boasts a female Chairperson, Managing Director and three board members while Wigan has both a female Chief Executive and Chief Administrator. Methodology for investigation To gain efficient and effective information on female participation rates in sport when looking for secondary information various places i.e. internet, books, journals etc would have to be investigated. Looking for as many sources as possible in order to decrease the chances of bias. The primary source will be more hands on getting into sessions and getting hard evidence. First, surveys where done in a basketball session class for kids and they were asked to name male and female players of 5 sports ranging from basketball to gymnastics. An example of this is in appendix 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

As sport increasingly becomes a business, women are to be found taking up positions as commercial directors and managers, marketing executives and company secretaries. As accountants appear increasingly to define the parameters of club ambitions on the field and commercial considerations override purely sporting decisions, women may find themselves better placed to exert an influence at football grounds the length and breadth of Britain. (Morrow, 2003). Perhaps it should also be acknowledged that sport is not the only male-dominated area of employment. White and Brackenridge noted in 1985 that gender stratification was apparent throughout the labour market and the Equal Opportunities Commission has consistently found that women are under-represented in the most senior positions of influence in business, the police, the media and the judiciary, with less than 10% in each of these fields (EOC, 2005). Sport, therefore, is not a unique case. The most heartening statistics for women may come from the annual survey by the Chartered Management Institute which showed that the proportion of female managers had risen from under 2% in 1975 to 22% in 2000, and to 31% in 2004. Although this indicates that 7 out of 10 managers are male, there would seem to be acceleration in the pace of change. Further avenues of research The research that was gathered could be taken lots of different places. As the research investigation was specific a certain avenue was effective to follow tasks and objectives. Further research that could be looked into is what could be done to get more females participating in a certain sports or how you could get more females interested in sports or even how to get away from stereotypes of women who play sports. ...read more.

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