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Nutrition and Hydration. Energy Intake and Expenditure In Sports Performance

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Introduction

Jack Pedley Unit 10 Sports Nutrition Assignment 2 P3/M1 Energy Intake and Expenditure In Sports Performance ." "Energy expenditure refers to the amount of energy a person uses daily to complete all bodily activities - from movement to breathing to digestion. It is measured in calories, a unit of heat, and is represented by the symbol kcal. Energy requirements can vary widely from person to person, and even from day to day in an individual. Total energy expenditure, also known as metabolic rate, is affected by such factors as amount of physical activity, number of hours spent sleeping, types of foods consumed, exposure to extreme temperatures, and amount of muscle mass a person carries" http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-energy-expenditure.htm Energy comes from the sun, it is called solar energy and it plants can convert this solar energy to chemical energy by a Process called photosynthesis. This chemical energy is used to make other substances such as carbohydrates, protein and fat and our body uses these in foods to obtain energy). Our bodies use protein and fat to produce Calories are units of energy, for the body, our body needs this energy to stay alive, grow, keep warm and be active. Several factors determine the number of calories that a person needs daily, including age, gender, level of physical activity, general fitness, and basal metabolic rate. Despite the number of things involved, it is possible to calculate approximately how many calories you need every day based on your current weight. ...read more.

Middle

Your energy in and energy out do not have to balance every day, you will stay at a healthy weight if you have a balance over the long term. It is important that children balance their energy but it should be considered that they are growing and that energy in and energy out supports natural growth without encouraging weight gain Resting metabolic rate (RMR) This is influenced by body composition, age, gender and genetic predisposition. Muscle is more metabolically active than fat so an increase in muscle mass produces and increase in RMR. Thermic effect of feeding This is due to the effects of digestion, absorption and metabolism of food, largely influenced by the calorific value of the food especially the ratio of fat and carbs. It is easier for the body to take on body fat from dietary fat than form dietary carbs. On average it is 10% of energy expenditure Thermic effect of activity This is the effect of energy used on activity so has implications for sportsmen and women and depends on the type of activity and the duration. On average it is 20% of energy expenditure. Adoptive Thermogenesis This is a response to changes in temperature and physiological stresses. On average it is 10% of energy expenditure Factors that affect energy expenditure * How often you exercise * Intensity of exercise * How long the exercise lasts for * Type of exercise * Age, gender, body composition * Climate To work out the energy value of a food , ...read more.

Conclusion

Loss of fluid can involve in viscosity of the blood. Sport Sweat loss 100m sprint 0 loss Running 10k 1.8% loss Football match (90 min) 2.9% loss Rugby union (80 min) 3.0% loss Marathon run 6.1% loss Your sweat loss varies in what sport you are performing in, for example the table below. You can have varied effects on loosing sweat from the body % body weight lost as sweat Physiological effect 2% Impaired performance 4% Capacity for muscular work declines 5% Heat exhaustion 7% Hallucination 10% Circulatory collapse and heat stroke Urine checks Your urine colour is a distinctive accurate way of checking your hydration, the lighter the colour of the urine the more hydrated you are and the less hydrated you are the darker the colour of the urine. Energy drinks There are three different types of energy drinks which deferentiate in levels of energy push. The three different types are Isotonic - Fluid, electrolytes and 6 to 8% of carbohydrates, this type of energy drink would be taken to do light sources of exercise that only gives you a slight awakening for example to wake the brain to do darts to help concentration. Hypertonic - fluid, electrolytes and low level of carbohydrates, this type of energy drink would be drank when playing a medium level of exercise for example 90 minutes of football or 80 minutes of rugby. Hypertonic - high levels of carbohydrates, this would be drank if you were about to take on a high expectancy of the muscles for example a extreme exercise drill or a marathon. ...read more.

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