• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Nutrition and Hydration. Energy Intake and Expenditure In Sports Performance

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Jack Pedley Unit 10 Sports Nutrition Assignment 2 P3/M1 Energy Intake and Expenditure In Sports Performance ." "Energy expenditure refers to the amount of energy a person uses daily to complete all bodily activities - from movement to breathing to digestion. It is measured in calories, a unit of heat, and is represented by the symbol kcal. Energy requirements can vary widely from person to person, and even from day to day in an individual. Total energy expenditure, also known as metabolic rate, is affected by such factors as amount of physical activity, number of hours spent sleeping, types of foods consumed, exposure to extreme temperatures, and amount of muscle mass a person carries" http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-energy-expenditure.htm Energy comes from the sun, it is called solar energy and it plants can convert this solar energy to chemical energy by a Process called photosynthesis. This chemical energy is used to make other substances such as carbohydrates, protein and fat and our body uses these in foods to obtain energy). Our bodies use protein and fat to produce Calories are units of energy, for the body, our body needs this energy to stay alive, grow, keep warm and be active. Several factors determine the number of calories that a person needs daily, including age, gender, level of physical activity, general fitness, and basal metabolic rate. Despite the number of things involved, it is possible to calculate approximately how many calories you need every day based on your current weight. ...read more.

Middle

Your energy in and energy out do not have to balance every day, you will stay at a healthy weight if you have a balance over the long term. It is important that children balance their energy but it should be considered that they are growing and that energy in and energy out supports natural growth without encouraging weight gain Resting metabolic rate (RMR) This is influenced by body composition, age, gender and genetic predisposition. Muscle is more metabolically active than fat so an increase in muscle mass produces and increase in RMR. Thermic effect of feeding This is due to the effects of digestion, absorption and metabolism of food, largely influenced by the calorific value of the food especially the ratio of fat and carbs. It is easier for the body to take on body fat from dietary fat than form dietary carbs. On average it is 10% of energy expenditure Thermic effect of activity This is the effect of energy used on activity so has implications for sportsmen and women and depends on the type of activity and the duration. On average it is 20% of energy expenditure. Adoptive Thermogenesis This is a response to changes in temperature and physiological stresses. On average it is 10% of energy expenditure Factors that affect energy expenditure * How often you exercise * Intensity of exercise * How long the exercise lasts for * Type of exercise * Age, gender, body composition * Climate To work out the energy value of a food , ...read more.

Conclusion

Loss of fluid can involve in viscosity of the blood. Sport Sweat loss 100m sprint 0 loss Running 10k 1.8% loss Football match (90 min) 2.9% loss Rugby union (80 min) 3.0% loss Marathon run 6.1% loss Your sweat loss varies in what sport you are performing in, for example the table below. You can have varied effects on loosing sweat from the body % body weight lost as sweat Physiological effect 2% Impaired performance 4% Capacity for muscular work declines 5% Heat exhaustion 7% Hallucination 10% Circulatory collapse and heat stroke Urine checks Your urine colour is a distinctive accurate way of checking your hydration, the lighter the colour of the urine the more hydrated you are and the less hydrated you are the darker the colour of the urine. Energy drinks There are three different types of energy drinks which deferentiate in levels of energy push. The three different types are Isotonic - Fluid, electrolytes and 6 to 8% of carbohydrates, this type of energy drink would be taken to do light sources of exercise that only gives you a slight awakening for example to wake the brain to do darts to help concentration. Hypertonic - fluid, electrolytes and low level of carbohydrates, this type of energy drink would be drank when playing a medium level of exercise for example 90 minutes of football or 80 minutes of rugby. Hypertonic - high levels of carbohydrates, this would be drank if you were about to take on a high expectancy of the muscles for example a extreme exercise drill or a marathon. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Exercise health and lifestyle

    A similar pattern of diet and alcohol consumption has also been found in other south European countries where heart disease rates are also lower compared with other parts of the world. Red wine, in particular, also contains flavonoids that act as antioxidants, which help to reduce the build up of

  2. Free essay

    sports nutrition

    we have to get are essential amino acids from eating animals, animals have all are essential acids in the while plants don't so vegetarians aren't really getting the right amino acids into their body. A lack of protein in our diets can result in slow growth, reduced muscle mass, lower immunity, and weaken the heart and respiratory system.

  1. Physiology Within Sport

    between each activity, reviewing this circuit you can analyse each activity to calculate which energy system would be predominant. From reviewing the graph above it is evident that throughout exercise the energy systems overlap, so for example with the skipping in the circuit at initially you will not be using

  2. Describe the different sports massage techniques

    or the thumbs on smaller areas (arms). Pulling This stroke can be used to pull and stretch the muscles of the torso and legs. Wringing This stroke is similar to "pulling", but instead of the pulling, wringing is performed across the body/limb.

  1. Planning, performing and evaluating a Personal Exercise Program (PEP)

    not very stretched then there is a good chance of it being damaged. It is needed in rugby because the game is long and the muscles will get tired throughout matches, if you have a lot of elastic strength then you will be able to stretch further and do more sharp movements.

  2. The purpose of a nutritional assessment is to categorise individuals and evaluate their health, ...

    BMI is just a guide - it does not accurately apply to elderly populations, pregnant women or very muscular athletes such as weightlifters. http://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/BMI.htm Waist to hip ratio The purpose of the waist to hip ratio test is to determine the ratio of waist circumference to the hip circumference and divide them by each other.

  1. Gene doping in sport. Gene Doping is the non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, ...

    for aerobic athletes but gene doping can be used for all types of athletes between you anaerobic and aerobic.

  2. Nutrition and Sports Performance

    Moving on there are differences in the diet between athletes and non-athletes as you can see in the table below the difference in the amount of nutrients world class athletes eat compared to non-athletes.This is the eat well plate which is percentage of how much an individual?s diet should be.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work