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Scientists recognize two kinds of exercise: isotonic and isometric. Isotonic exercise involves moving a muscle through a long distance against low resistance, as in running, swimming, or gymnastics.

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Scientists recognize two kinds of exercise: isotonic and isometric. Isotonic exercise involves moving a muscle through a long distance against low resistance, as in running, swimming, or gymnastics. In isometric exercise, on the other hand, muscles are moved through a short distance against a high resistance, as in pushing or pulling an immovable object. Isometric exercise is best for developing large muscles, whereas isotonic exercise has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. It increases the amount of blood that the heart can pump and causes proliferation of small blood vessels that carry oxygen to the muscles. These changes make possible longer sustained activity. Neither kind of exercise increases the number of muscle fibers, but both types-and especially isometric exercise-increase the thickness of the muscle fibers and their ability to store glycogen, the fuel for muscular activity. ...read more.


Isotonic and isokinetic muscle contraction The sort of exercise in which muscles are used in a normal dynamic way and in which muscles contract at a speed controlled by a shot-putter is called isotonic. In this case, the work is Labelled concentric or positive because the resulting tension causes the muscle to create movement by shortening its length. The advantage of this type of exercise is that it stimulates real sporting use of the musculature. One of the adaptions produced by this type of training or exercise is to increase the capillarisation of both skeletal and cardiac muscle and to enable these muscles to become more resistant to the onset of fatigue. This means that there is more likely to lead to improvement in sporting performance. In isokinetic exercise, the point at which force acts moves at constant speed. ...read more.


The ends of these joints are coated with cartilages, which reduce friction and cushion against jolts. Cartilage: * Consists of cell chondrocytes * The chondrocytes are found in the matrix of the cell fibrils * Chondrocytes produce the matrix * Hard but flexible * Found between joint's/bones * Elastic so that it's flexible to with stand compressive forces (absorb shock). * 3 types; Hyaline, found at the end of bones, nose, air passages, and ear. Yellow elastic, not usually part of the actual skeleton. Highly elastic and returns to its original shape quickly e.g. Ligaments. White fibrous, cartilage contains bundles of collagen fibres not as flexible. Found between vertebrates. Ligament: * The amount of collagen, found within the ligament varies * It allows the bones of the joints to move * Yellow elastic cartilage * Very flexible/elastic * They form a capsule around the joints and hold the bones together * Depends/ varies according to the joint - loose/tights, sometimes white fibrous cartilage is also found ...read more.

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