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The Anatomy and Kinetics of the body in relation to sporting application

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Introduction

The Anatomy and Kinetics of the body in relation to sporting application Introduction I am going to be analysing the bench press action from a anatomical standpoint looking at the structure and function of the wrist, elbow and shoulder. As well as the surrounding bone/connective tissue, ligaments, tendons, muscle type and structure and neural input in relation to the movement the joint permits when performing a bench press (see appendix 1) The main articulations involved when performing a bench press are the shoulder, elbow and wrist. The shoulder or pectoral girdle consists of articulations between the clavicle, scapula and the proximal end of the humerus. Movements at this joint are largely passive in that the occur as a result of active movements of the scapula. The glenohumeral articulation (shoulder joint) has the greatest range of motion of any joint in the body. The scapula is suspended on the thoracic wall by muscle forming a functional joint called the scapulothoracic joint. These muscles act to stabilize and to actively move the scapula. Active movements of the scapula help increase the range of motion of the shoulder joint. Articular cartilage cushions this joint by covering the head of the humerus and face of the glenoid. Stabilizing the joint is the labrum, a ring of fibrous cartilage surrounding the glenoid. The acromion (highest point of the shoulder) ...read more.

Middle

Where as extension of the wrist is performed primarily by the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis and by the extensor carpi ulnaris. The extenders of the fingers assist in extension when gripping the bar to perform the bench press. Supination is performed in the forearm by the supinator muscle, extensor carpi radialis longus and the biceps brachii of the upper arm. Pronation is performed by combined action of the pronator teres, pronator quadratus, and the flexor carpi radialis, and in extremely forceful pronation of the palmarus longus. Ulnar abduction (movement towards the fifth finger) is obtained by the combined actions of the extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi ulnaris. Radial abduction (movement towards the thumb side) is obtained primarily by the long abductor and short extensor of the thumb, and secondarily by the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, flexor carpi radialis and the long extensor of the thumb (see appendix 4) . The Volar Radiocarpal Ligament is a broad membranous band, attached above to the anterior margin of the lower end of the radius and to the front of the lower end of the ulna; its fibres pass downward and medialward to be inserted into the volar surfaces of the navicular, lunate, and triangular bones, some being continued to the capitate. ...read more.

Conclusion

Whether or not you pause at the end of the concentric half of the rep, eventually you have to return the weight to the start position. This is called the eccentric phase. During the eccentric phase, nerve impulses continue to signal motor units to fire, even though fewer motor units are being used than during the concentric contraction. As a result, more stress is placed on each of the activated muscle fibres. Combining the concentric and eccentric phases of the action produces an exercise's range of motion. Exercising through a full range of motion is safe as long as the action is slow and under control. The elbow, wrist and shoulder joints play major roles in all three of these phases as they permit the movement allowed to perform the action of a bench press. All these joints have similar and different anatomical structures, For example there all synovial joints and are all needed immensely by the body to carry out different movements, and in this case, the bench press. They are also very different in the fact that they all are different types of joint, the wrist is a condyloid joint, the shoulder is a ball and socket joint and the elbow is a hinge joint. Each type of articulation allows very different types of movement due to the surrounding factors involved which either help enhance the range of movement or restrict it. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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