• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"Critically Discuss the Prospective Economic and Political Impact of Turkish Accession to the European Union"

Extracts from this document...


Coursework for EC0902A The Political Economy of the European Union Lecturer: Dr. Charles Maddison Title: "Critically Discuss the Prospective Economic and Political Impact of Turkish Accession to the European Union" Submitted by: Sonja Ambrosius Student No. 0404332 'Turkey is part of Europe.' (Walter Hallenstein, 1963) 'Is Turkey European?' (Claude Cheysson, 1984) Introduction These two quotes give a good start for an essay about the prospective political and economical effects of an accession of Turkey to the European Union (EU). In 1963 Turkey signed the European Association agreement, normally seen as a prelude to membership, as the second country ever. The Ankara agreement included three phases which would bring Turkey to full economic integration in the EU. Nowadays it seems like the process got stuck and some members of the EU, like the quote of the former French minister for foreign affairs shows, feel less attached to the thought of Turkey as a member of the EU then people did in 1963. Turkey has a customs Union with the EU and the status of an associate member since 1963. Turkey first applied to fully join the EU in 1987. The stumbling of the integration of Turkey found its peak in 1997 at the European Council Summit in Luxembourg where accession negotiations were opened to all applicants except Turkey. The Turkish reaction was not to participate in the European Conference in London 1998. This led to reinforcement of Turkeys membership and in 1999 Turkey was finally accepted as candidate for full membership. ...read more.


These requirements led to a constitutional change in October 2001 which ensured the prevention of torture, freedom of speech, freedom of association, and equality between men and women. The influence of the military has been reduced and the death penalty abolished. Yet it can't be finalized if the constitutional changes have been fully adopted (Dorronsoro, 2004). The European enlargement minister G´┐Żnther Verheugen at his visit to Ankara in September of this year pointed out that the implementation of the new laws is similarly important as passing them. Also further improvements have to be made regarding the rights of the Kurdish population and the freedom of religion. The new rights for the Kurds are just a beginning and it is still nearly impossible to open up a non-islamic church in Turkey (The Economist, 18.09.2004). The political effects Turkey could have on the EU are rather high. It is expected that by 2020 the Turkish population will exceed the German and by that Turkey will become the 'biggest' member of the Union. That will give it a strong vote in the Council's double-majority voting system. Still it would need cooperation of all the 'big players' in the EU to block or influence the decision process in the EU institutions. In the European Commission the influence would be equal to that of all others. The influence in the Parliament would be bigger but still wouldn't necessarily require a restructuring of this Institution as the stability would still be guaranteed (Hughes, 2004). Furthermore a big issue is Turkey being an Islamic country. ...read more.


On the other hand the public opinion inside the EU is very critical about that issue as the following quote summarizes: "EU politicians face one of the toughest decisions they have ever had to take. If they say no to Turkey, they risk alienating a key ally in the Muslim world with unpredictable consequences. If they say yes, they may upset many voters at home who are already unhappy about where the EU is going" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3719418.stm) This December the European Council meeting will have to decide about the opening of accession talks with Turkey. At the current status of the Turkish reforms there is hardly a possibility to say no. Compared to other former applicants Turkey has reached a status that exceeds what others have reached. Furthermore to reject Turkey would have a negative influence as a sign to the Oriental world, that a prosperous Islamic country is not acceptable for the EU. As long as the EU is strong enough to demand the necessary changes that have to made to guarantee a stable democracy, this could only have positive results in a troubled region which is at least close to Europe if not within. Literature Dinan, Desmond, 2004:Europe Recast, A History of European Union; Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire Dorronsoro, Giles, 2004: The EU and Turkey, Between geopolitics and social engineering in: European Union Foreign and Security Policy by: Roland Dannreuther (edt.), 2004; Routledge, London Hughes, Kristin, 2004: Turkey And The European Union: Just Another Enlargement? Exploring The Implications Of Turkish Accession; http://www.friendsofeurope.org/pdfs/TurkeyandtheEuropeanUnion-WorkingPaperFoE.pdf Unknown, 2004: The impossibility of saying no; The Economist 18.09.2004, p. 32-34 Webpages in order of appearance: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3720506.stm, 08.11.2004 http://www.europa.eu.int/scadplus/leg/de/lvb/l34003.htm, 08.11.2004 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3712804.stm, 08.11.2004 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/1022222.stm#leaders, 08.11.2004 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/1022222.stm, 09.11.2004 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level European Union section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level European Union essays

  1. The Institution of the European Union and Theories.

    A description of EU the treaties, including a clear explanation of how this has generated opportunities and treats for UK businesses. The EU treaties are international laws which are written by the nations in the European Union. All countries in the European Union must adhere to them in good faith.

  2. Free essay

    Account for the different political and public attitudes towards Turkey's application for EU membership.

    Kwok and David M. Reeb) 'infrastructure risks, for example, includes such items as the increased transportation delays due to fewer roads, highways, railways, less developed air routes and greater susceptibility to route closing due to less reliable machinery operating on these routes.'

  1. Why has the Common Agricultural Policy proved so controversial?

    Verification of claims has been a responsibility for national governments and member states have been "lax" (Jones, 2001, pg219) in carrying out this task. Many problems have occurred such as claims for produce that does not actually exist and re-labelling of imports as produce of the EU in order to obtain subsidies.

  2. What Are The Functions Of The Four EU Institutions? How Are European Laws Made?

    For instance, consumer protection legislation is always decided using the codecision procedure. These rules were originally laid down in the Treaties of the European Union. Whenever the Council is involved in legislating it either votes by unanimity or by qualified majority which like the choice of procedure depends on the policy areas in question.

  1. The Foreign Policy of Great Britain in relationship to the European Union.

    In Nice Britain has repeated its position (i) that European defense would operate only when NATO chooses not to be engaged; (ii) that it be limited to peacekeeping, humanitarian and crisis management tasks; and (iii)-as agreed in Nice, 'the commitment of national assets to any EU led operation will be

  2. Which EU institution is the most powerful

    a government may not have included in their election manifesto - but that national government has to introduce them as the European Commission has passed them. A recent example to impact Britain on January 1st 2002, has been the Commission's ruling that old refrigerators cannot be dumped by shops because of their impact on the environment.

  1. Why was the accession of the UK to the EEC in 1972 so politically ...

    Britain had also suffered a humiliating defeat during the Suez crisis, which highlighted Britain's fall from grace as a single world power (Watts, 2005, p23). Furthermore, US president Kennedy had allegedly informed British Prime Minister Harold McMillan in private that should the USA be forced to choose between trading with the British led European Free Trade Association (EFTA)

  2. What does citizenship mean in the European context?

    I may be a German national in the in-reaching strong sense of organic-cultural identification and sense of belongingness. I am simultaneously a European citizen in terms of my European transnational affinities to shared values which transcend the ethno-national diversity. So much so, that in the a range of areas of

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work