The Winnipeg General Strike.
The Winnipeg General Strike The province of Manitoba has endured a tumultuous history. It was born as a result of the Riel rebellion and its capital city, Winnipeg, was the sight of the only general strike in Canadian history. The Winnipeg General Strike, which took place shortly after the end of the Great War, brought, in the eyes of some, the specter of revolution to Canada. In the end, however, the strike was, from a labour standpoint, an abject failure, as virtually no long-term gains were made.1 It is difficult to comprehend how this strike, which lasted from May-June 1919 and began with between twenty-four and thirty thousand workers walking off the job (only 12,000 of whom were unionized)2, could end in failure but, when the events of the strike are examined in detail, it becomes apparent that the strike leaders themselves were, ultimately, responsible for their lack of success as they continually took steps which undermined their ability to force a resolution on their own terms. Labour unrest had been rampant in Winnipeg for many years and, although trade unions had made some modest gains, it was the employers, backed by government and the courts, who usually emerged victorious from the numerous work stoppages which took place. Employers, in fact, relied on the courts as a means of settling labour disputes to such a degree that Winnipeg became known, in colloquial
EU actorness in relation to Environment policy and Development policy: An evaluation.
Lynda Curtis EU actorness in relation to Environment policy and Development policy: An evaluation. "The sheer size of the European Union in economic, trade and financial terms makes it a world player. The EU has a web of bilateral and multilateral agreements covering most countries and regions of the globe."1 The European Union today faces global responsibilities and challenges. The EU is the largest trading block in the world, the largest donor of humanitarian and development assistance and a constant point of reference for others on stability, democracy and human rights2. Although the European Union institutions play a huge part in the day-to-day affairs of the states inside of the Union this report will assess the EU's role in relation to the area outside of the European Union borders. I will look firstly at the different criteria by which it can be established that the EU is indeed an actor I will then look closer at how the EU acts externally in two policy areas; Environmental policy and Development policy. I will conclude with an assessment of the European Union as an actor outside of the EU area. How do we define Europe as an external actor? There are deemed to be certain prerequisites to distinguish 'actorness' in a state. In order to call the EU an actor there must be commitment at EU level to a set of values and principles, both political and moral, accepted
Cabinet Positions of the US Government
Cabinet Positions -The United States Department of Agriculture The Department of Agriculture, often called the USDA, is the government entity that is responsible for creating and executing all policies and regulations having anything to do with farming, food, and agriculture in general. Using its budget of 94 billion dollars, it aims to help farmers and ranchers, promote trade of agricultural products, assure safety of food and protect natural resources. One of the most important day to day jobs of the department of agriculture is the inspecting of meat, vegetables, fruit etc. which is marked for consumer use. -The United States Department of Commerce The Department of Commerce is a small but important department of the cabinet. The main concern of the Department of Commerce is to promote economic growth and prevent economic stagnation. To do this, it ensures that new jobs are being created, living standards are improving and that there is sufficient infrastructure in the American capitalistic system to promote growth of the American economy. This department was originally part of a larger department, The United States Department of Commerce and Labor which obviously included the current Department of Labor. The Department of Commerce also contains the recognizable Bureau of the Census and NOAA, or National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for some reason. -United
Authoritarian Leadership This is a traditional leadership, firm and very strict. These kind of leaders expect to be listened to, obeyed quickly and exactly. They will not put up with argument or questions asked. They are believers in force, and they asked to be treated with a lot of respect. Laissez-faire Leadership This is the complete opposite to Authoritarian Leadership. Laissez- faire is French for ' let them do what they want'. It cant be a leadership if you have no control over anybody, but very occasionally they put their foot down. Democratic Leadership Democratic Leadership is the third kind or style of leadership. This is seen as a moderate type of leadership, between two extremes. This is said to have the best of both worlds. To round it off, it means that everyone has a part to play in the decision making-process. Army- Authoritarian Leadership is displayed here. The Drill sergeant would shout at the soldiers who wouldn't be marching correctly. He does this to give them discipline, and make them understand that they don't expect anything less than they want. So the next time they do it, they will get it right. Police- Democratic Leadership is displayed here. If one of the lower officers couldn't get enough evidence to convict a suspect, then the higher rank officer maybe unhappy but will not discipline the officer for his actions. He will explain to him
Who other than the governments of state, do you consider to be significant actors in the contemporary international system?
Who other than the governments of state, do you consider to be significant actors in the contemporary international system? There are many actors in the modern international system ranging from major international political organisations such as the UN and NATO to less sizable, yet in their own way no less important, institutions such as Greenpeace and other pressure groups. In this essay I hope to identify the political groups that have played a part in recent global politics and then evaluate any potential claim to being a 'significant actor'. United Nations After the treaty of Versailles in the aftermath of the First World War an organisation called the League of Nations was established. This was a largely ineffectual organisation that had the intentions of preventing major world conflict occurring again. It stood by powerless in the pre-Second World War years when it allowed Germany to pursue its expansionist aims, leading to the start of the first total war. In the final days of the Second World War at the San Francisco conference the United Nations was established in the hope of preventing another major world conflict between members by connecting them in almost a 'world government'. It acts on a 'multi-layered system of governance sometimes working with states, sometimes alongside them, and sometimes apart form them.' (Baylis & Smith, 1997). The central system is
There are two main types of electoral system in the UK:First Past the Post (FPTP) Proportional Representation (PR)
Electoral systems There are two main types of electoral system in the UK: * First Past the Post (FPTP) * Proportional Representation (PR) First Past the Post (FPTP) FPTP is the voting system used for the election of MPs to 'seats' in the UK Parliament. It is a system in which the 'winner takes all' and usually gives a clear majority both at constituency and national level. This means that a candidate in a constituency only needs one more vote than the nearest rival to win the seat. Similarly, political parties only need to win one more seat in the House of Commons to have a majority. Advantages of FPTP There is very little chance of extremist parties being elected to Parliament under FPTP because they are unlikely to gain enough votes in any one constituency. Generally the results of elections using FPTP can be calculated quickly. When necessary, this makes the transfer of power from one party to another much easier. The 1997 and 2001 elections were clear evidence of this. Disadvantages of FPTP The main criticism of FPTP is that the number of votes cast for a party in general elections is not accurately reflected in the number of seats won. An example of this was the 1997 election when the Conservatives gained 18% of the vote in Scotland but not one seat. This is mirrored at constituency level, where the winning candidate may have received only one third of the
NATURAL SCIENCE INTRODUCTION Perhaps the most obvious characteristic of science today is its success. This is both practical and theoretical. Science has changed our lives considerably, both for better and for worse, since today much of our technology is the product of scientific knowledge. Its great prestige has always lain in the belief that science provides us with a uniquely secure form of knowledge, firmly founded in objective reality. People say: "Scientists have proved..." Unfortunately, things are not so simple. Science is one of those terms, which we are sure all we understand and which raises no problems until we begin to look at the matter more closely. There is no precise, commonly accepted idea of what constitutes science: * There is no general agreement as to exactly which intellectual disciplines should count as science. * It is commonly held that what makes science distinctive has nothing directly to do with the subject matter, which is investigated, but that it is the method, which is used to acquire scientific knowledge, which gives to science its special authority. But then, as we shall see, there is no commonly accepted account of the methods that scientists must follow in order to obtain results that are properly scientific. THE ORIGINS OF SCIENCE All ancient peoples had some knowledge of agricultural and building techniques, of healing herbs and
To what extent did “The longest suicide note in history” contribute to Conservative victory in the 1983 General Election?
To what extent did "The longest suicide note in history" contribute to Conservative victory in the 1983 General Election? For the Conservative Party, the 1983 General Election victory would have seemed to be another political triumph. However, many argue that this particular victory was aided by many factors which the 'Tories could not have controlled. I will look at and analyse the General Election results as well as other major factors such as the battle in the South Atlantic, the state of the Labour Party, the public opinion of Thatcher, and other personal triumphs for the Conservatives as a whole. By looking at election results and the other factors mentioned I will show that uncontrollable factors were as much to hold responsible for the Conservative victory as the 'Tories were themselves. There were many successes to the Conservative Party during the late 1970's and mid- 1980's. Under Margaret Thatcher, the Conservatives had achieved three general election victories on the trot, in 1979 and 1983 then again in 1987. During this period, the Conservative Party had achieved successes in the form of the Housing Act 1980, which was a major piece of legislation which enabled people to buy their council houses- consequently emphasising the New-Right ideology of independence and self-reliance. Another major factor, which brought success to both the Conservative Party
How effective is Parliament in checking Executive Power?
How effective is Parliament in checking Executive Power? Parliament scrutinises the Government through many different mediums. These mediums include but are not limited to select committees, Question Time and debates in both Houses. Despite the many different ways in which power can be checked the effectiveness of this scrutiny is often criticised. These criticism include select committees having a majority of the governing party's MPs, the Government sitting in the House of Commons and therefore influencing decision made and the lack off information for opposition parties. Some may say that the number of ways in which the Government can be scrutinised provides adequate effectiveness. One way is during debates every Member of Parliament, whether that be a member of the Government itself or the single representative of the Green Party, may voice their opinion or suggest changes to a bill. Despite this, many backbenchers and independent MPs have little voice and the majority of major issues are contested between the frontbenchers. The official opposition party, the party with the second most seats, has a larger voice than other opposition parties. This is partly due to them having more MPs and partly due to the leader of the official opposition being allowed more questions during Prime Ministers Question Time. This allows more specific and in depth scrutiny that if every
Where Power Lies in Congress
WHERE POWER LIES IN CONGRESS SAMUEL COVE Each chamber of Congress has a different focus of power. The reasons for this are partly because of the Constitution. With the Senate, it gives the power to ratify or reject treaties (such as the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty) and confirm executive (often ambassadorial) appointments. Further, Senators are appointed per state rather than per district, this contributes to giving them a more national (and international) outlook, rather than for the 'folks back home'. These factors increase the Senate's influence over foreign affairs. Although it could be argued that this 'power' in the Senate is only in theory. With Presidential Executive Agreements used in place of treaties more often, and EXOP officials having much power, thus reducing the importance of executive confirmations. These factors undermine the Senate's power. The Senate also has the power to confirm (e.g. Chief Justice Roberts, Justice Samuel Alito) or reject (e.g. Harriet Myers, forced to withdraw after conservative pressure) Supreme Court appointments; a potentially long-reaching power that far outstrips the individual term of any congressmen (6 and 2 years for the Senate and House respectively) - although it should be noted that the high rate of incumbency makes this effect slightly lessened. Individual Senators are often seen as having a higher prestige than