"Fishing in the EU maritime area is increasingly unsustainable." Discuss this statement with reference to the Common Fisheries Policy.
European Union Essay "Fishing in the EU maritime area is increasingly unsustainable." Discuss this statement with reference to the Common Fisheries Policy. Sustainability of fishing is the ability to continue the practice of fishing indefinitely. This means that the amount of fish removed, are naturally replaced. Not only does fishing contribute to the depletion in the amount of fish available, but also factors such as pollution and the destruction of natural habitats/ resources will cause lower amounts of fish to naturally occur. In the EU fishing is becoming more unsustainable, and evidence of this is clear as in 1985about 1750 thousand tonnes of cod, haddock and hake were caught in the EU, within five years this had fallen to just 1050 thousand tonnes, and ever since 1990 it has reached no higher than 1150 in 1995. One of the biggest problems that fishing faces is the fact that the seas are not owned by any one particular country. This means that the amount of fishing in a sea is not easy to control as a result. For this to occur one body which can control many countries has to set out regulations which must be kept to and monitored. The reason for this is because without control fishing will grow out of control and cause fish numbers to deplete to such an extent that it cannot be regenerated. This can not occur without the agreement of several countries because if for
"How was the doctrine of supremacy developed by the European Court of Justice, and how was it interpreted by the UK courts?"
"How was the doctrine of supremacy developed by the European Court of Justice, and how was it interpreted by the UK courts?" The aims of this essay are to explain how the European Court of Justice initially developed the doctrine of supremacy. This will be done by explaining the process upon which the doctrine of supremacy was established within Europe. Also to be included is information regarding the different set backs that the doctrine of supremacy encountered. The essay will also determine how the doctrine of supremacy has been interpreted by the UK courts from the time when it was introduced up to present day. The essay will also have an area where the future of EU supremacy is discussed. "The European Court of Justice has consistently distanced the EU legal system from 'ordinary' international law."1 As this is arguably likely to cause problems within the EU regarding which law is applicable. Therefor the EU believes that on accessing the EU the relevant member state is transferring its sovereign rights to the Community. Which effectively produces another independent legal system. The court has given effect to this view by proclaiming four principles: - EU law penetrates into the national legal systems, and can and must be applied by the national courts, subject to authoritative rulings on the interpretation, effect and validity of EU law by the Court of
"Criticallyevaluate the Role of the Commissioner for Judicial Appointments."
"Critically evaluate the Role of the Commissioner for Judicial Appointments." The commission was set up originally after Sir Leonard Peach was ordered to provide a report into how the proceedings of appointments for the judiciary and the Queen's Counsel was made. The main aim of the report was to evaluate the procedures into how judicial and Queen's counsel appointments are made. In particular the effectiveness of the criteria given and the procedures for the selection of the best candidates, the safeguards against discrimination against race or gender and the way in which candidates are assessed with regards to the criteria. Lord Irvine the current Lord Chancellor before appointment into office had strongly criticised the so-called secretive and outdated system and had called for an independent appointments commission. Now that he has been appointed into his current position, the independent commission for judicial appointments set up does not actually appoints the judiciary but instead monitors the Lord Chancellor's team that does. In a damning report, it was found that the appointments system was said to be slow, unsystematic and unprofessional. It also found that a number of senior judges and leaders of the legal profession did not provide detailed reasons for their assessments, which was a requirement. It has been suggested the current system is still producing a white
"'A troublesome partner.' Using examples, to what extent would you say this comment accurately describes the United Kingdom's membership of the EU since 1973"
"'A troublesome partner.' Using examples, to what extent would you say this comment accurately describes the United Kingdom's membership of the EU since 1973" Since the mid-1980s, the transfer of state powers to a EU level and reforms affecting the distribution of power in EU policy have challenged the sovereignty of member states. Since the United Kingdom joined the European Union through the Conservative Prime Minister, Edward Heath, it has been seen as the most awkward partner in the 'club' and has been a force for disintegration within it.1 This was particularly apparent during Margaret Thatcher's premiership.1 This view however, neglects an appreciation of the importance of accomodationism within the UK approach to EU developments. The UK/EU relationship from 1945-present will be profiled in the contrasting terms of uncooperativeness then accomodationism with an attempt at explaining the reasoning for the actions of the 'troublesome partner.'1 Plate 1: Thatcher in 1975 in pro-European campaign Source 2 At the time of Britain's accession in 1973, EU membership was seen as essential for the reversal of economic decline. Since then, UK governments have encouraged the EU to develop into a large free trade area, but have sought to limit EU competences and revenues in attempts to ensure that sovereignty is not diminished and that the UK governmental system, as a whole,
"Analyse and compare the gains predicted by economic theory from theremoval of (a) tariff barriers (b) non-tariff barriers wi
"Analyse and compare the gains predicted by economic theory from the removal of (a) tariff barriers (b) non-tariff barriers within the Single European Market" Autumn Term: Vanessa Fry EC 329 Economics of the European Union 2004 By: Partthepan Shivacanthan BSc Economics In this essay I have been asked to analyse and compare the gains predicted by the economic theory from the removal of tariff barriers and non-tariff barriers within the Single European Market. In order to answer this question we must first have an understanding of the history and the purpose of the Single European Market and why measures such as tariff and non-tariff barriers play a major role when talking about trade. The creation of the European Union was seen as a major stepping stone towards creating a united "super power"; within which there was political harmony, economic stability and social co-operation between its member countries. The moves to complete the Single European Market (SEM) and the progress towards an economic union focused attention on the European Union; who was seen as a key player in the process of European integration. It all dates back to 1952, where the foundations were laid of a European Community when the Treaty of Paris created the European Coal and steel community (ECSC) whose objective was to withdraw the French and German basic industries from the national authority
"Critically Discuss the Prospective Economic and Political Impact of Turkish Accession to the European Union"
Coursework for EC0902A The Political Economy of the European Union Lecturer: Dr. Charles Maddison Title: "Critically Discuss the Prospective Economic and Political Impact of Turkish Accession to the European Union" Submitted by: Sonja Ambrosius Student No. 0404332 'Turkey is part of Europe.' (Walter Hallenstein, 1963) 'Is Turkey European?' (Claude Cheysson, 1984) Introduction These two quotes give a good start for an essay about the prospective political and economical effects of an accession of Turkey to the European Union (EU). In 1963 Turkey signed the European Association agreement, normally seen as a prelude to membership, as the second country ever. The Ankara agreement included three phases which would bring Turkey to full economic integration in the EU. Nowadays it seems like the process got stuck and some members of the EU, like the quote of the former French minister for foreign affairs shows, feel less attached to the thought of Turkey as a member of the EU then people did in 1963. Turkey has a customs Union with the EU and the status of an associate member since 1963. Turkey first applied to fully join the EU in 1987. The stumbling of the integration of Turkey found its peak in 1997 at the European Council Summit in Luxembourg where accession negotiations were opened to all applicants except Turkey. The Turkish reaction was not to participate in the
"European Community Law derives from a range of sources" - Describe, giving examples, the various sources of European Community Law.
Assignment on European Law (a) "European Community Law derives from a range of sources" Describe, giving examples, the various sources of European Community Law The European Community originated from treaties, which led to the development of three communes; the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Committee (Euratom). Treaties are the primary sources of the European Community Law. The Treaties are seen as the foundation of the European Communities, as it gives authority and imposes boundaries on the power of the institutions. These agreements enforce compulsory obligations on the member states and give particular regard to the superiority of such Treaties. In effect, the Treaties shape part of the national law for each of the member states, who are under duty to enact European Community legislation. After World War II, the Foreign Minister of France, Robert Schuman invited Germany and other member states, namely Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands and discussed the idea of congregating steel and coal resources. The main purpose of this agreement was to improve employment opportunities and raise standards of living in each member state. On the 18th of April 1951, the Treaty of Paris was signed, which led to the development of the European Coal and Steel Community. The European
The European parliament.
The European parliament A) Elected representatives are representatives who have been elected for their job. In some cases, a countries government could send an MP to a meeting in Europe but they would not have been elected to go, they would have selected. An elected representative will have been chosen by a vote either from a vote in a parliament or a public vote to go to the EU commission and represent their countries interests. The benefit of an elected representative would hopefully that they try to do more to please their countries although this can have the side effect that they will not support a ruling that will not please their voters and so this can make it hard to get anything done in the EU commission because everyone has their own agenda. Someone who was appointed might be able to work together with the other EU representatives and get things done much easier. B) The European parliament lacks power... Hmmm One of the major problems that I have already spoken on if the fact that since each country has a representative in the EU parliament they are all trying to represent their countries wants and views. This would be a big obstacle to any parliament but it is compounded by the fact that each member has a veto and so if any topic comes up which a member does not even slightly agree on, they can veto and the whole thing will be stopped. This is why it
Has the creation of the Single European Market been a success?
Has the creation of the Single European Market been a success? The Single Market was contemplated in the Rome Treaty. It consisted of an eight-year programme to be completed between 1985 and 1992 and one of the main objectives was to eliminate barriers that existed to trade in the then European Community. Its completion was considered to be one of the most ambitious targets and one of the most enduring successes.1 The Single European Act provided the legal framework that made the attainment of the target of a Single European Market by 1992 a realist possibility, through a process of harmonisation for existing legislation. The mobility of capital, labour and goods and services became reality in simultaneous with the establishment of a new European trading block in which competition between countries and companies has increased. The key objectives of the Community are in the Rome Treaty. In this essay I will analyse whether or not the Single European Market has been a success, defining success as 'a favourable accomplishment'. The original plans for a Common Market as known in the Treaty of Rome, which emphasized the creation of a Common Market and Customs Union between the member states, meant the removal of tariffs and other obstacles to trade between the original Six and, as expressed through the Common External Tariff (CET), the adoption of a Common Trade Policy
Why did Britain join the EEC in 1973 and not in 1957?
Why did Britain join the EEC in 1973 and not in 1957? The EEC's description is as an economic customs union, in a supranational political structure. In 1951 the 'Six' first established their European unity by signing the Treaty of Paris, which was the beginning of the European Coal and Steel Community. The ECSC followed a Plan by French Foreign Minister Robert Schumen, which arranged the ECSC as the institution for the European coal and steel industries. The EEC was the result of talks started at Messina, then finalised when the Treaty of Rome was signed by the 'Six' in 1957. Britain was not present at the talks at Messina, or for the signing of the Treaty of Paris or the Treaty of Rome. This meant that Britain had not got involved in the EEC when it was established, meaning it would be harder to get involved later. A phrase applied to this lack of involvement from the start, is "missed the bus" into Europe. A conservative MP, Anthony Nutting, wrote in his book Europe Will Not Wait (1964) that he believed that by "missing the bus" Britain had been left far behind, loosing the chance to take a role of leadership in Europe, from there it could have moulded Europe to suit itself. Also he explained that if Britain had realised it would have had to join in the future anyway, there could have been more involvement in the talks in Messina, and the Rome Treaty, which would have meant