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Describe the proposals made during the Second World War for the provision of a Welfare State.

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St Paul's Girls' School Centre Number 10172 Zo� Martin Miss Caines Describe the proposals made during the Second World War for the provision of a Welfare State The proposals made during the Second World War for the provision of a Welfare State were made in order to eliminate poverty from the country. Various proposals were made that aimed to achieve this. One proposal, which was the main aim of the "Beveridge Report" was to abolish Want by providing social insurance for all: this meant providing various benefits and making people pay contributions, both depending on the class of the individual. Retirement pensions (over 60 for women, over 65 for men) and children's allowances would be provided. Employees would get benefits for unemployment and disability, and employers, traders, independent workers and people of working age without a job would get training benefit. Housewives would be given maternity grant, provision for widowhood and separation. It was also proposed that everyone should be covered for comprehensive medical treatment and has his or her funeral expenses paid for. In order for this to be financed, everyone of working age, except for housewives, would pay a single contribution once a week. ...read more.


In 1946 the "National Insurance Act" passed, with the purpose of providing for those with low income or those not able to work. This meant people got maternity pay, unemployment benefit and widow's pension. The act increased pensions to �25 a week for a single person and �42 a week for couples. The sickness benefit also went up from �18 to �26 a week, and if women paid a contribution they could add this benefit to their maternity benefit. Contributions by employees and employers were made compulsory, so as to keep assisting those in need. In 1948 two additional acts were passed: The "National Assistance Act" which made it possible for someone to not contribute if they proved to be in serious need, and the "Industrial Injuries Act" that provided employees with compensation if they were injured at work due to the carelessness of an employer. The "National Insurance Act" also, very importantly, set a standard for poverty, which made it possible to determine who was actually poor. This made it easier to decide who should not have to contribute, and also find out the number of people who were living in poverty. ...read more.


The "Butler Act" in 1944 made primary and secondary education free for everyone and the leaving age was raised to 15. Numbers of teachers increased, providing better education and one out of seven people went on to higher education. The Tripartite System was taken on in most places. This divided children into Grammar, Technical and Secondary Modern Schools depending on their results in the newly introduced 11+ examinations. This system was not implemented, so some areas could not provide Technical Schools, meaning all those who did not get into Grammar Schools had to attend Secondary Modern Schools. As private schools still remained, those who could afford them did not need to pass the 11+ to get a good education. This left the working class in Secondary Moderns, with hardly any more chance than before of going on to higher education. The Labour Party succeeded in beginning to overcome the "Five Giants". They however, did not completely abolish them as they had hoped. They were far to optimistic, and could not possibly have expected to achieve this. The difficulty they encountered was that they had spent much time planning to eliminate these problems, but not enough effort was put into implementing their plans. Had they more money and more time, Labour could have dealt with these setbacks, and achieved most of what they had hoped. Words: 1201 Total: 1998 ...read more.

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