• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How and to what extent has modern liberalism departed from the ideas of classical liberalism?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How and to what extent has modern liberalism departed from the ideas of classical liberalism? Modern liberalism has made several significant departures from classical liberalism, most significantly resulting from their different views on what exactly constitutes freedom. Whereas classical liberals such as Adam Smith and John Locke believed in negative freedom - the freedom of interference by others, modern liberals see freedom as positive - the right of accessing the opportunities and resources needed to fulfil ones potential. It is from this key ideological difference that other differences arise. Perhaps the most significant departure from classical liberalism that this has resulted in is the Modern liberals' perception of the state. Traditionally, Liberals have been very suspicious of the state as a body with the potential to limit personal freedom, and therefore something to be treated with caution. Locke famously stated that the state lay "within the realm of coercion", prompting Liberals to be wary of state interference and seeing its role as to protect the individual from having their freedom impinged upon by others, rather than to interfere with positive aims. ...read more.

Middle

In modern liberalism, this original economic idea is still present, but it has developed into one with more restrictions in order to benefit the greater number of people. The idea of a free market are still supported, but with careful management in place to ensure protection for both workers and consumers. Furthermore, they believe that some essential sectors of the economy should be state managed, in contrast to Classical liberals' belief that the economy should be 100% based on private enterprise. Healthcare and education are two key areas that modern liberals have singled out as being important for the state to control, in order to ensure that levels of provision are equal and that people have the freedom to self-fulfilment; again linking back to their strong commitment to positive freedom as opposed to classical liberalism's negative freedom. Furthermore, modern liberals believe that taxes should be levied and regulation implemented across the economy again to aid the provision of certain state services and protect the consumer, something that has become known as Keynesianism after the modern liberal economist J.M. ...read more.

Conclusion

T.H. Green, a modern liberal thinker, believed that Liberty was only attainable in favourable economic circumstances, and this necessitated some form of help to be given to those in need in order for them to be free, and modern liberals see welfare as a 'hand up, not a hand out'. This clearly represents a significant departure from Classical liberalism. Over the years, modern liberalism has departed from classical liberalism to a large extent. Their fundamental difference in what constitutes freedom - Classical liberals and negative freedom, the belief that freedom constitutes protection from exterior limits to individual liberty, and Modern liberals who believe in positive freedom, that liberty constitutes the opportunity to realise ones potential to its full extent - have lead modern liberals to depart quite significantly from the classical philosophy. They have rejected the ideas of a limited state and embraced the concept of welfare and social justice as well as imposing regulation and limits on the economy with the aim of securing individual liberty via 'positive', rather than classical liberalism's 'negative' liberal policy. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Political Philosophy section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

5 star(s)

5 Stars - A very strong essay. The structure and technique is excellent - the points are logically linked together, and the argument is constantly reiterated and re-evaluated before the conclusion is skillfully reached. subject knowledge and understanding is strong, with quotes and supporting material well selected and applied. The essay is also clearly and articulately expressed.

Marked by teacher Dan Carter 17/09/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Political Philosophy essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Is war Inevitable?

    Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party, also called the Nazi Party. He was the ruler of Germany from 1933 to 1945, serving as Chancellor from 1933 to 1945 and as head of state from 1934 to 1945.

  2. Analyse the main differences between Liberal and Marxist ideology

    individuals survive more successfully if they associate with other individuals to form alliances and relationships beneficial to survival. Economically, individuals need to trade and do business with each other to obtain all the goods they require, and this cannot be achieved autonomously.

  1. Compare and Contrast Positive and Negative Conceptions of Liberty.

    In contrast, positive liberty is self mastery or self - realisation; the ability to control ones own life and develop personal autonomy. This concept sees liberty as the presence of control on a person - freedom means self determination and control of ones own destiny and interests.

  2. To what extent is feminism a single doctrine?

    They achieve these mainly through reforming laws and promoting attitudinal changes within the existing structure of society. Whereas radical and socialist feminist would prefer a revolutionary transform of the society such as creating a system of communal living or overthrowing capitalism Furthermore, even within the traditions of feminism, there are divergent elements.

  1. To what extent have socialists been committed to equality of outcome?

    Meaning that they did not regard some inequality as undesirable, as a means of motivation perhaps, and that they wished to achieve their goals through evolutionary means; not revolutionary ones. Finally, equality in the old Marxist sense has all but been abandoned by New Labour and the Third Way.

  2. Define hegemony and explain its significance for Global World Order. (15)

    Replacing Gaddafi with the equivalent of a puppet assures America's entry, giving America unchallenged Mediterranean Basin dominance, a strategically important waterway bordering three continents. Hegemonic states also have great significance for Global Order since they are primarily responsible it appears for Humanitarian Intervention.

  1. To what extent do the similarities between Classical Liberals and Modern Liberals outweigh the ...

    This is known as ?development individualism?, linked to collectivism, as it entails ?rolling forward? the state, which will lay down the conditions that foster personal growth and human flourishing. This is another example of classical and modern liberals agreeing that individualism is important, but disagreeing as to the way in which to achieve it.

  2. What were the most important factors in the rise of the modern state?

    At this time, social status dictated the amount of authority one possessed and the laws that they were obliged to abide by. This complex system of power caused an overlapping of legitimacy with the various actors often competing for sovereignty and shifting alliances frequently.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work