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In what ways did the fascist Movement change between 1919 - 1922

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Introduction

In what ways did the fascist Movement change between 1919 - 1922 In the beginning the fascist movement had a relatively small membership of around 100 members, who gained the name of, 'the first hair fascists'. The fascists were a movement as opposed to a political part as there was no structured ideology, which favoured left wing views. By 1922 however the movement had developed into a strong political party with approximately 500,000 members with right wing views. Mussolini was a strong powerful dictator whose political ideas changed dramatically between 1919-1922. At the start, Mussolini was a Socialist and his early ideas were based on the socialists' ideas of the time. These early ideas of Mussolini can be explained on where he was brought up and the views of his parents. He was born in July 1883 in Predappio, Romagna. This was a region of marked class conflict and strong anarchist and Republican political traditions. The people and neighbours around Mussolini had strong political views whereby it was believed that Italy should be a Republic country without a Monarch. These people mainly supported the socialists on the left wing. ...read more.

Middle

In the autumn of 1920 during the Bienno Rosso the socialists made big gains in the local elections. This alarmed Italy's property-owning classes, who feared that they would face higher taxes to pay for public works controlled by socialist unions. The people were turning in desperation to support another movement who could offer them support and good policies. Despite getting only one seat in the general election Mussolini realised that to meet his great ambitions in becoming Prime Minister they would have to become a right wing movement rather that a left wing movement as that's where the support was and that's where he would have success. This would indicate that Mussolini did not really hold strong political views but instead was an opportunist using politics for his own gain as opposed to using politics to amend the wrongs in society. From 1920 Mussolini began to drop more radical policies and presented a more reasonable movement: a movement and a party pledged to restore Italian power and prestige; to develop the economy by increasing productivity; to re-establish strong leadership and law and order by curbing left-wing subversives and the abandonment of republicanism, anti-clericalism, dropping the demand for votes for women and for taxes for war profits were later abandoned around 1922. ...read more.

Conclusion

He used the various opposition parties to meet his own gains mainly to get into parliament. In may 1921 having gained 35 seats and 7% of the vote on the strength of supporting a liberal government; he then announced that the fascists would not go ahead with their support. In a pact with the Socialists he made the fascist political party (PNF). He made a dual policy whereby he tried to appease both the Catholics (who were allowed into politics following a ruling by the Pope) and the Socialists. This helped him remove the fascist party away from being associated with violence, promoting both sides differing things in order to get support from both. In a bid to make the party making himself leader of the party he attempted to make the party more respectable in promising to discipline the Renegades and get encouraging the violence and perpetrators. In conclusion therefore, the fascist party developed between 1919 and 1920 from being a left wing movement to a right wing political party. This was because Mussolini realised that to enter parliament he would have to change his political ideas to appeal to people like the industrialists and those who felt threatened by the socialists during the Bienno Rosso. Rachael Daniels ...read more.

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