• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Iran Country Study

Extracts from this document...


Kerry Nierenberg AP Comparative Government 7th Hour 3-22-09 Iran Country Study Section I: Les Regles de Jeu * Constitutional Structure - Iran's Constitution was adopted in 1980. It specifically outlines Iran as an Islamic Republic. This means the nation has popular elected Legislative and Executive branches, an established Judicial branch, which is allowed to interpret the Constitution and declare acts of Parliament, the Majlis, unconstitutional. The Constitution, further, requires the government to take place in the market, calling for three distinct sectors: the state, the cooperative and the private. Thus, the government in Iran is required by their constitution to own, or at least partially take a role in, certain sectors of the economy. Currently, Iran has an extensive Social Security network, consisting mostly of pensions for workers. * Electoral Systems - The government of Iran has elections for most of its political institutions: the Majlis, the President, and the Assembly of Experts. In the Majlis, 290 members are elected by popular vote to serve a 4-year term. The President is elected by popular vote to serve a 4-year term. These bodies, in turn, elect candidates or verify appointments for three other institutions: the Guardian Council, the Cabinet, and the Supreme Leader. However, much power rests in the hands of the Supreme Leader who appoints the Judicial leadership and the expediency council, while approving the members of the Guardian Council. For example, another office, the Leader of the Islamic Revolution, is appointed for life by the Assembly of Experts. * Legislative Process - Anyone may draft a bill however, only members of Congress can introduce legislation, and by doing so become the sponsors. There are four basic types of legislation: bills, joint resolutions, concurrent resolutions, and simple resolutions. The official legislative process begins when a bill or resolution is numbered, referred to a committee, and printed by the Government Printing Office. * First, bills are referred to standing committees in the House or Senate according to carefully delineated rules of procedure. ...read more.


Views on economic and cultural changes are cross-cutting. Social welfare in Iran, as elsewhere in the Islamic world, has also traditionally been a matter of discussion. The country faces major problems, including a large subculture of drug users (estimated at over two million) and the AIDS infection rate, for which they are mostly responsible. Another pressing issue is Iran's human rights record, which leaves much to be desired. To this day there are numerous and continued human rights violations, including the lack of an independent judiciary, the use of the death penalty, the use of torture in prisons and other detention centers, the use of amputations and other cruel punishments, a continuing campaign against journalists and intellectuals, and a culture of impunity for vigilantes who commit abuses against regime opponents and ordinary citizens who do not conform to strict Islamic codes of conduct. * Informal Power Structures - Many factions of political influence exist in Iran that are not necessarily formal power structures. There are numerous important groups located in the gray zone between the regime and civil society which are critical of the regime. These groups constitute a religious "semi-opposition," criticize the regime on a religious basis, and strive for nonviolent reform of the political system within the boundaries established by the constitution. In addition, there are a number of small, militant opposition groups that actively seek the violent overthrow of the regime. These consist of monarchists, the Islamic Marxist Mojahedin-e Khalq, the separatist Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran, and the several underground groups that speak for Iran's discriminated-against Sunni minority. * Major Political Forces * United Principlist Front - a coalition of 11 conservative lists that is the dominant force in the new Majlis. The front's strong conservative undercurrents and innate dislike for the opposition reformist blocs should ensure its close association with the conservative government. * The Inclusive and Participation Front - a more assertive opposition, comprising of both conservative opponents of the president, and reformist groups. ...read more.


While they must follow in accordance with the Constitution, they must also follow Islamic Sharia law. This highlights a very important part of Iranian civic culture, the role of Islam in the political process. * Methods of Political Mobilization - Political parties, coalitions, organizations, and other factions of the public that pass influence on political issues offer outlets for citizens frustrated or content with the current political system. Since Iran has a multi-party Republic, these political parties can serve as a way to connect the people and the government. * The Impact of Economic Development on the State - Economic growth in Iran will remain stable over a forecast period of the next five years or so. However, the slow pace of oil output growth, and consequent stagnation of oil revenue, will force the government to rein in its expansionary fiscal policy. Real GDP growth is expected to average around 4.4% each year over the forecast period. * Civic Culture - In almost every faction of Iranian government, Islam has a very powerful effect on the practical and theoretical role of government in relation to tradition, history, ethnicity, and religion. The people of Iran have always been proud, favoring conservative and religious traditions over revolutionary concepts. The absence of communists, or any favorable political factions who do not have strong religious roots, illustrates this strongly. From this, it can be determined that the Iranians, much like the British, favor their own cultural traditions and evolutionary government, rather than revolution and foreign intervention. * Methods of Leadership Selection - The Iranian President and Majlis are elected from the populace, while other political entities, such as the Supreme Leader, are elected from the Assembly of Experts who are elected from the people. In addition, some power structures, such as the Guardian Council, are established through religious institutions and clergy. Section VII: Media Review Article 1 - "Pop culture can be bigger bridge between U.S., Iran" http://www.iranian.ws/iran_news/publish/article_29052.shtml This article refers to the assumption that the news forecasts that Iranians live a very repressive lifestyle. Article 2 - "Why Iran Wants Russia in OPEC" http://www.realclearworld.com/articles/2009/03/why_iran_wants_russia_in_opec.html ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Political Philosophy section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Political Philosophy essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    "Explain And Discuss How The "Ideologies Of Welfare" Explored In This Module Can Be ...

    3 star(s)

    Thatcher's principle policies, the interventional role of the 1980's conservative government was to be kept to a minimum - leading to the rolling back of the welfare state. Thatcher's politics were a return to the laissez - faire from which the Tory Party was created.

  2. Similarities and differences between 21st century religious fundamentalism and 20th century European Fascism

    daily; Iran reiterated that it will still maintain its fundamentalist ways despite pressures from the United States.19 Another example will be Evangelicals forming pressure groups to translate their ideas into actions. "Ideology includes both empirical and normative elements-empirical assertions that certain conditions exist, and normative assertions that a certain political

  1. An analysis of the Marxist perspective on religion

    In China, during the lifetime of Mao Tse-tung, a personality cult endured where children were taught to love Mao and obey all of his orders. This obviously goes against the theories of Marx that religion is not necessary where politics and economy are united.

  2. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the system of choosing presidential candidates.

    National conventions are colossal exercises in PR which boost the morale and inspiration of party activists and candidates standing for local, state and congressional elections at the same time. With substantial media coverage, the "horse race" finally reaches a stage with significance to the public, for people can now think realistically about which 'horse' they wish to back.

  1. Utilitarianism: Explanation And Study of Criticisms

    overall, then be honest" At the base of the utilitarian's moral theory is a imaginary imperative. The rightness of the action is restricted upon the production of good. If being honest does not produce the most amount of good, then we ought not to tell the truth.

  2. Nigeria Country Study

    * Division of Power Among Branches of Government - Executive power is vested in the president, who is simultaneously chief of state and head of government. The president is eligible for two four-year terms. The president's Federal Executive Council, or cabinet, includes representatives from all 36 states.

  1. 'Parties do not matter anymore.' Discuss.

    ticket voting - voting for candidates of two or more parties for different offices in the same election - which has grown rapidly since 1952 where 13% of the electorate voted for different parties for different office, to 28% in 1994.

  2. Accounts for the changes in voting behaviour in the last 30 years in UK ...

    However, there are several criticisms of the Issue Voting/Rational Choice model. It does not explain why a rational and self-interested voter would bother to vote at all, given that an effort is required to gather the information needed to make a choice and given that an individual's vote will have no effect on the final result.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work