• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12

Define the following - psychology, cognition, motion, self and moral development.

Extracts from this document...


SYDNEY CESAR RSY 2102 PSYCHOLOGY DEFINE THE FOLLOWING;*******PSYCHOLOGY, COGNITION,*****MOTION,****SELF, AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT**** DEFINE PSYCHOLOGY Psychology in my view is a relatively new 'science' where scientists (social scientist) study humans and animals behaviour, metal processes, and adaptation under specific environmental stressors. They study these reactions and behaviours so that a guide about, how people and animals, mental, physical and other aspects, reacts and adapt to the environment and how these help or hinder interactions between them. ( That means they try to label behaviours and classify them to understand, predict, or reinforce or create similar behaviour. ( From Sternberg (2001)``we learn that there are 4 main goals of psychology. Firstly, this science has a describing goal, where they tried to explain why such human behaviour occurs and describe what is happening. This is done through intensive observation either in laboratory conditions or in field research. The second goal is answering how people and other organization react feel, think invasions situations. The third goal is to predict behaviour, and say that under similar circumstances people animals may act likeness. The fourth and last goal is control, where they seeking to influence behaviour.(Lecture march 2003) E.g. To make people love the police in India, they try out pale blue uniforms instead of deep blue as psychologists believed that the later provokes/promotes violent behaviour.(www.bbc.world.com) ( Interesting! Sternberg (2001) argues that 'to study psychology, the study of the mind and behaviour, is to seek to understand how we think, learn, perceive, feel, act and interact with others....' (Sternberg 1995 pp4) These are very difficult, because people and animals are unique and very unpredictable. An example could be when people or animals act, their actions can be purely reflexes (emotions), as these mentioned above (think, learn etc) are mainly cognition. Cognition cannot be measured accurately. Psychology deals with the individuals cognitive, behavioral and other aspects, not the big picture on (macro). ...read more.


This means that the most adaptable person is the one that will survive, and grow. A typical example is the president of South Africa, Mr. Nelson Mandela, he survived 27 years in jail then got to be the president and later remarry. (www.bbc.world.com) The next step of Piaget's cognitive development is 'assimilation'. He said that this is 'the process of taking in new information, and the resulting integration into the structure of thought'' (Zastrow & Ashman 2001pp116|) This like 'operant conditioning', help a person to experience, either personally or seeing others perform a task, and seeing the result of such task and finally adopting such actions. An example in class of lower primary, where teachers put an emphasis on order, and rising of hands if one has something to say. This will take some time but eventually everyone accept, agree, and behave likewise as the teacher uses praises or punishments (positive or negative reinforcement) to encourage good obedience. The last and final one is accommodation This according to Piaget (1959), is a step where one 'changes of one perceptions, and action in order think using higher, more abstract levels of cognition' (Zastrow & Ashman 2001pp116) An example when children start using money, they learn very fast, soon they will be telling you that five rupees will only buy them so much and they will need more money. They learn and modify their behaviours because it is in their interests to learn to count and prove to you that five rupees are too little. They also learn that to lie and get more is a possibility!! Another thing that affects cognition is "intelligence". The more intelligent someone is, the more likely they could adapt to (a) their environment (b) themselves/others and to changes in their lives. Piaget said ``that intelligence help accommodate changes and assimilate new concepts.''(David Fontana 1998pp10) This according to him help modify existing schema but sometimes intelligence people cannot "accept and adapt to changes better compared to an average person''.( lecture 7/ ...read more.


Hutchison pp 112) another argued that "emotions are short-lived, subjective, physiological and motivational" (Reeves 1992 pp 402,) This point has been mentioned already while another other, said` we are slaves to our emotions' (Giligan 1995). Sternberg (2001) added that ``emotions are culturally regulated affects perceptions, have a cognitive component, a physiological and a behavioral component''. (Sternberg 2001pp363) Another component of emotions is about helping people to adapt, reflect and move or motivate them to move forward or to run away from life threatening situations. An example; when a person (male) sees a willing, young, beautiful girl, - hearts beats faster, sweat and other similar traits surfaces, thus has an urge to move closer whereas, when a lion come visible,- panic, shock, fear and cold sweat surface and we have an urge to run away. Sternberg (2001) said ``emotions in humans help to adapt its changing needs as well as circumstances in the environment'' (Sternberg 2001pp363) Reeves describe emotions as "Communicative phenomena that helps us to adapt to opportunity and challenges that we face, (Reeves 1992, pp402) he extended his meaning and said ``that which choreographs the subjective biological, functional, and expressive component into a coherent reaction to a particular event." (Reeves 1992 pp402). This is the third time this quote has been used in your definition. As a social worker, emotions have many purposes and functions: firstly to consciously provide and produce good and positive verbals, and non-verbals, secondly to read and rightly decode the expressed emotions from clients, and lastly to respond to these appropriately. From our lectures, we learn that emotions have functions too. These functions are mainly during interactions, and communication. These functions are communicate feeling to others/regulate interact invites and facilitates social interaction and plays a pivotal role in creating maintaining relationships. These can have a profound effect of the nature of social work if the social workers are getting emotional over clients problems. This may affect practice as emotions affect perceptions so critical thinking needs to be applied at all times. (.lecture 8/ March 2003) Emotions and cognition are complex and interactive" (Elisabeth D. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Communication skills in a group interaction.

    For example she quoted: * Tone of voice - at times she found it difficult to calm her voice down, due to nervousness. * Appropriate responsiveness and calmness - again Leanne found it hard at times to remain calm, however it did improve towards the end.

  2. Levels Of Processing

    Craik and Lockhart's theory tells us that semantic is the deepest level of processing, this can be applied to this experiment in which case it is expected that there will be increased recall in the semantic condition compared to the visual condition, this is stated in the hypothesis.

  1. Using studies from the list below, answer the questions which follow: Rosenhan (sane in ...

    study was reductionist and it 'reduces'the behaviour of murder to a measure of metabolic activity in the brain. * Psychodynamic model - This approach was developed by Freud (1915-1918) to emphasize the internal dynamics and conflicts that occur at an unconscious level.

  2. Free essay

    Unmasking Anxiety with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    The idea behind this technique is that we usually criticize ourselves harder when we are upset than we would our friends. A person practicing this exercise can take negative thoughts from their Daily Mood log and focus in on them.

  1. What do we mean by resilience? How

    physical and sexual abuse and neglect; Promoting health and well being, ensuring healthy lifestyles, development of positive social skills and emotional resilience; Supporting achievement and enjoyment, development of skills and knowledge to enjoy childhood and facilitate social inclusion; Enabling participation and supporting responsible behaviour in the local community, economy, and

  2. Is Popular culture an Influence on Violent Behaviour?

    Lastly, if the link is a real one and could be truly justified, what would the reaction be from the film industry and how would others in the movie industry react, knowing that their movies could affect people in this way?

  1. Research was carried out to investigate the effect of the direction of incident light ...

    Direction Observed Expected O-E (O-E) � /E Positive 1 6.67 -5.67 -4.81 Negative 16 6.67 9.33 13.04 Neutral 3 6.67 -3.67 -2.01 Total 6.21 As the total is larger than 3.841 I can be 95% certain that there is a significant difference between these results and my null hypothesis in which I stated, there is

  2. Psychology Controversy essay, Nature Vs Nurture PY4

    t h e   i l l n e s s   i f   t h e i r   a d o p t i v e   p a r e n t s   w e r e   r a t e d   a

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work