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Discuss two or more biological therapies for phobic disorders

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Introduction

´╗┐Discuss two or more biological therapies for phobic disorders Biological therapies can help reduce the high level of anxiety experienced by phobics, allowing a patient to return to a more normal life (such as being able to go outdoors again). Drug therapies include Anti-Anxiety drugs, Beta blockers and Antidepressants. They aim to alter abnormal behaviour by intervening directly in bodily processes (helps with the symptoms).Those that experience psychological problems or show disturbed behaviour patterns go to their family doctors. The first line of treatment is medical. Drug therapies are most common for treatment for phobias. However drugs haven?t been considered to be the primary treatment for specific phobias because they tend to interfere less with everyday life than, for example social phobias. However they are appropriate when panic attacks accompany specific phobias and also for social phobias, though drugs can?t provide a complete treatment as they simply focus on symptoms. Anti- Anxiety drugs include Chemotherapy, Beta blockers and Antidepressants. Chemotherapy :Benzodiazepines (BZs reduce anxiety and slow down the activity of the CNS by enhancing the activity of GABA, this is a neurotransmitter that when released has a quietening effect on the neurones. ...read more.

Middle

This results a fall in blood pressure, this means there is less stress on the heart and this makes the person feel more calm and less anxious. There is research to support the effectiveness of beta blockers. Liebowitz et al (1985) found that beta-blockers can also provide an effective means of anxiety control. However some studies have shown that the benefits may be largely explained in terms of placebo effect. For example Turner et al found no difference between a BB and placebo group in terms of reduced heart rate, feeling of nervousness etc. A strength of BB is that they have few side effects compare to antidepressants. Antidepressants: - SSRIs are the preferred drug. It increases amounts of serotonin which regulates mood and anxiety. Research to support the effectiveness of antidepressants comes from Aouizerate et al he concluded that SSRIs provide relief for social phobias in 50-80% of cases, a level similar to BZs. Even though SSRIs are portrayed as relatively safe, this is not the case adverse effects include anxiety, sexual dysfunction, nausea, insomnia and aggressive and even suicidal thoughts. ...read more.

Conclusion

It is believed that an area of the brain is malfunctioning, and of the connection to this part of the brain is severed then the psychological symptoms may be relieved. They are three types of psychosurgery: 1. Capsultonomy - Organ is removed with connection severed. 2. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) ? involves placing wires in the brain, the wires are connected to a battery in the patient?s chest. When the current is on, this interrupts the target circuits in the brain. There is no disruption. 3. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) ? is another technique which is like deep brain stimulation and it avoids destruction of brain tissue. Psychosurgery is rarely suitable for phobias and then only for extreme cases that have proved otherwise untreatable, and that interfere with normal day to day functioning. However Szasz (1978) criticised psychosurgery generally because the psyche is not something physical and therefore it is illogical to suggest that it can be operated on. A study into the effectiveness of psychosurgery was done by Ruck et al his study give some indication of success of psychosurgery for a range of anxiety disorders including social phobias. However any benefits clearly have to be weighed against the potential for negative effects. ...read more.

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