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Explain and discuss autism in the context of differing perspectives, policies and practices.

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Introduction

Explain and discuss autism in the context of differing perspectives, policies and practices Autism is a neurological disorder that effects the brains functioning, although psychological problems can surface because of the biological issues. It can range from mild to severe cases. It is not restricted to a certain gender, however it is four times more likely to occur in boys than girls. Signs of autism usually occur within the first three years of life. These can be recognised by developmental difficulties. It is becoming widely recognised as a disability. With the aid of different perspectives, policies and practices it can be supported and treated in the appropriate manner. There are many different perspectives on autism. Each of them has a different insight into autism. Specialist medical practitioners such as Dr. Bauman, and Dr. Thomas Kemper, alongside scientists have been entangled in autism research since 1983. They understand the disorder is a wide spectrum of different behaviours. Autistic spectrum Disorders (ASD). Through research scientists have confirmed that biology is the reason for autism. It indicates that autism can be a result of several altered genes by interfering with the brain chemical message system that guides brain development. Insights into genetics show that autistic people have abnormalities in the cerebellar brain regions. This causes defects in sensory, language, cognitive and attention functions. http://web.sfn.org/content/Publications/BrainBriefings/autism.html Autistic children are emotionally and socially withdrawn, it appears as though they are very much involved in their own thoughts and feelings. This tends to mean they barely notice other children around them. ...read more.

Middle

http://www.cec.sped.org/osep/database/detailView.html?masterID=180 A child's green paper 'every child matters' was introduced on the 8th September by the priminister. The paper was set about to improve the outcome for children and their families. There are four main aspects to the paper: Early intervention and effective protection, supporting parents and carers, accountability and integration, locally, regionally and nationally and workforce reform. http://www.dfes.gov.uk/everychildmatters/ The National Autistic Society (NAS). Founded in 1962, by a group of parents. It provides services for adults and children with autism. The NAS works to follow up the green paper in the identification of autism and support to people with autism. A particular comment of the green paper is 'mental illness'. It recommends the government assemble a group of agencies together to work in the field of poor mental health. This should include the National Autistic Society. With a collaborative approach issues will be approached and appropriate action will be taken. The paper states it is primarily important to look at those with mental illness that have been undiagnosed or unsupported. http://195.157.68.212/policy/consult/health.html Recently there has been concern relating the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine with autism. Only 84% of children had been immunised by the NHS between 2001-2003 against measles, mumps and rubella which is a fall of over 3% since 2000-2001 and 8% lower than the peak coverage of 92% between 1995-1996. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/327/7413/488 It has been suggested that the MMR vaccine caused a certain type of autism known as variant autism. This is where the child becomes increasingly worse over time and will probably suffer bowel disorders. ...read more.

Conclusion

you may not necessarily have a female brain if you are female. As well as biology we also know that society and culture play a part in determining whether you have a male brain or a female brain. Children with autism tend to be extreme in the male brain. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 33 (5): 509-517, October 2003 They have trouble empathising but are very good with systemising. There are two main sub-groups of autism. These are Asperger syndrome and classic autism. Both find it difficult in developing social relationships, communication and they both tend to have a fixed obsession with a routine. There are differences between the two; children with classic autism could have an IQ of any range. Children with Asperger syndrome have at least an average or above average IQ. One child in every 200 is diagnosed with having autistic conditions. Males are far more likely to be diagnosed than females. The E-S theory describes the autistic obsessive behaviour as focus on systematic interest on objects. The obsession can range from a time length of a few weeks to a few years. Thursday April 17, 2003 The Guardian A therapist that is trying to teach imitation will use a command such as "clap your hands" while the therapist claps her hands. The child will then be expected to clap their hand. If the child is successful they will be rewarded; if they are not successful the therapist will say "no", then pause and repeat the procedure. Dr. O. Ivar Lovaas, a pioneering researcher in psychology published a study in 1987 that showed 19 preschoolers involved in full time behavioural impediment on that of 40 hours a week achieved "normal functioning". http://www.peach.org. ...read more.

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