• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Freuds Psychosexual Stages of Development

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development Freud advanced a theory of personality development that centred on the effects of the sexual pleasure drive on the individual consciousness. The following five stages are based around the notion that with each stage, the child's libido becomes centred around certain erogenous zones. The Oral Stage The oral stage begins at birth, when the oral cavity is the primary focus of libidal energy. The child, of course, preoccupies himself with nursing, with the pleasure of sucking and accepting things into the mouth. The oral character who is frustrated at this stage, whose mother refused to nurse him on demand or who truncated nursing sessions early, is characterized by pessimism, envy, suspicion and sarcasm. The overindulged oral character, whose nursing urges were always and often excessively satisfied, is optimistic, gullible, and is full of admiration for others around him. The stage finishes at the weaning stage. The stage lasts approximately one and one-half years. ...read more.

Middle

This stage lasts from one and one-half to two years. The Phallic Stage In this stage, the child's erogenous zone is the genital region. As the child becomes more interested in his genitals, and in the genitals of others, conflict arises. The conflict, labeled the Oedipus complex (The Electra complex in women), involves the child's unconscious desire to possess the opposite-sexed parent and to eliminate the same-sexed one. Libidal energy transfers from the anal region to his genitals. The boy notices that women, his mother in particular, have no penises, becomes fearful that his father will remove his penis, too. The anxiety is aggravated by the threats and discipline he incurs when caught masturbating by his parents. This castration anxiety outstrips his desire for his mother, so he represses the desire. Moreover, although the boy sees that though he cannot posses his mother, because his father does, he can posses her vicariously by becoming more like his father. ...read more.

Conclusion

Latency Period The resolution of the phallic stage leads to the latency period, which is not a psychosexual stage of development, but a period in which the sexual drive lies dormant. Freud saw latency as a period of unparalleled repression of sexual desires and erogenous impulses. During the latency period, children pour this repressed libidal energy into asexual pursuits such as school, athletics, and same-sex friendships. But soon puberty strikes, and the genitals once again become a central focus of libidal energy. The Genital Stage In the genital stage, as the child's energy once again focuses on his genitals, interest turns to heterosexual relationships. The less energy the child has left invested in unresolved psychosexual developments, the greater his capacity will be to develop normal relationships with the opposite sex. If, however, he remains fixated, particularly on the phallic stage, his development will be troubled as he struggles with further repression and defences. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

5 star(s)

Response to the question

Though not a completely typically-structured essay, this is a very competent summary of the features of the psychosexual stages Freud proposed in his theory of infant to adult sexuality. The answer is clear and concise, and shows a good knowledge ...

Read full review

Response to the question

Though not a completely typically-structured essay, this is a very competent summary of the features of the psychosexual stages Freud proposed in his theory of infant to adult sexuality. The answer is clear and concise, and shows a good knowledge of the types of personality that develop as a result of fixation as well as successfully completing certain stages. The answer is also very nicely set out with a clear structure that aids the reader in appreciating and retaining the information easily.

Level of analysis

The Level of Analysis here isn't marked only AO1 (knowledge and understanding) is, so that will be evaluated here.

The knowledge shown is extensive, even for a summary, and so much so that some of the information seems like guesswork (the personality types in later life due to fixations); this isn't something that will hinder the candidate though, as it is made clear they know what they are talking about and possesses further knowledge behind what they show - this has just been trimmed for efficiency.

The candidate clearly demonstrates a critical understandings of the effects each psychosexual stage has on an individual and the psychology of each stage (erogenous foci, fixation), particularly the Phallic stage. Perhaps a bit more about the ideas of homosexuality starting in the phallic stage would enhance this answer, but given the other information in this section, it is by no means requisite.

Quality of writing

The Quality of Written Communication is absolutely fine. Despite not accommodating longer, more elaborate sentences syntaxes as a result of not being a full-on essay, this candidate's QWC is still high and kept in good control.


Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by sydneyhopcroft 08/09/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Piaget's and Freud's Child development theories

    4 star(s)

    New ways of learning and understanding occur as children explore their world. Piaget 's ideas are based that Children's development is discontinuous, that children grow and develop at certain points in their lives. Children's understanding is different from adults. For example, Piaget believed that when an object is hidden from

  2. Peer reviewed

    Describe & Evaluate Freuds Theory Of Psychosexual Development

    3 star(s)

    The anal stage is completed once toilet training is successful. The third stage is the phallic stage from around 3 years of age until 5/6 years. In this stage the genitals are the focus of pleasure, boys experience the Oedipus complex & girls experience the Electra complex.

  1. Describe and Evaluate Bowlby's and Ainsworth's ideas about parent-child relationships.

    The concept that there is a critical period for the formation of primary attachments is a view that was proposed by Bowlby, who suggested that children must form attachments before the age of two or else they would never recover.

  2. For this assignment I have decided to look at the disorder known as ADHD ...

    Need this be the case? As Weeks and Laver-Bradbury (1997) point out "the vicious cycle of pre-school behaviour problems, school failure and adolescent and adult social malfunction needs to be tackled early", nurses are in prime position to help achieve this if given the skills and resources to do so.

  1. Using studies from the list below, answer the questions which follow: Rosenhan (sane in ...

    Other symptoms include hallucinations and delusions. The aim of Thigpen and Cleckley's case study was to provide an account of the psychotherapeutic treatment of a 25 year old woman (known as Eve White in the study) who was referred to them because of 'severe and blinding headaches'.

  2. Theories of Human Development - Stages of Development

    Arnold Gasell also worked within the perspective of biologically determined development. Gasell introduced the notion that human development could be measured in terms of biological maturation. Maturation is the genetically programmed 'unfolding' of abilities and behaviour. Gasells main work was carried out from the 1930s to 1950s and he is

  1. Human Growth and Development

    through the second year, these representations come to form a significant component of the growing child's sense of core self. Summary of my research: Stern has formulated a theory of affective attunement or attachment behaviour grounded in modern evolutionary theory.

  2. Lifespan development - stages and theories.

    The experiment was conducted in a place unfamiliar to the child, and observations were made where mother and stranger interacts with the child, in different settings and records the child?s reactions. Ainsworth found three types of attachment: secure, insecure, and avoidant.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work