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Introduction to Psychology

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Introduction

´╗┐Introduction to Psychology Oxford English Dictionary defines psychology as ??the science of the functions phenomena and nature of the human mind or soul??. American Psychological Association (APA) describes psychology as, ??It is the study of the mind and behaviour. The discipline embraces all aspects of the human experience ranging from the functions of the brain to the actions of nations, from child development to care for the aged. In every conceivable setting from scientific research centres to mental healthcare services, ??the understanding of the behaviour?? is the enterprise of psychologists??. In addition, according to Feldman (1990), Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour of human and its mental procedures. Psychology is regarded as a science since it utilises the steps of scientific methods to stud human behaviour. Psychology is empirical and systemic relying on the measurements. Scientific methods follow these given steps: 1. Problem Identification ? identity what to study, for example, gender differences. 2. Hypothesis Formulation ? a testable statement is formed by the researcher. 3. Data Collection ? use scientific research methods to gather data, for example, lab experiments. 4. Analysis and Interpretation of Data ? analyse the data collected, for example, change to quantitative to qualitative. ...read more.

Middle

3. The Behavioural approach examines the process of learning. It focuses specifically on the impact of punishment and reward on a person?s behaviour. Behaviourism is principally concerned with detectable actions, rather than inner occasions like cognition and feeling. Observable (i.e. outer) actions might be experimentally and objectively considered. Inner events, for example cognition considering ought to be clarified in behavioural terms. Behaviourist approach successfully implemented traditional and operant modeling to its speculations. Behavioural psychologists use lab experiments and case studies in their research, for example, little Albert (Gross, 2010). 4. Evolutionary approach focus on the primary instincts of survival and how they impact behaviours of human beings. It is the investigation of the psychological adjustments of people to the altering physical and the social surroundings, in particular behavioural distinctions and cognitive systems in people. Evolutionary psychology studies human actions that fuse the impacts of advancement, for example, passing on genes. As our precursors stood up to issues, they describe methods for tackling those issues. Over the long run, the best results improved into fundamental senses. Those conducts are tempered by information from our society, family, and distinct components. However, the underlying conducts are instinctual (Pennington, 2002). ...read more.

Conclusion

In addition, the theory demonstrates psychodynamic development by the concept of over and under gratification, for example, psychosexual development. On the other hand, Behaviourist Theory demonstrates the processes of learning in daily life including modelling and observational learning. These methods can be implemented in daily routine. Behaviour modification techniques are helpful in learning desirable behaviours and removing undesirable behaviour (Eysenck and Flanagan, 2001). Ethical Guidelines on the Practice of Psychology Today According to British Psychology Society some basic ethical guidelines in practicing psychology research and therapy include beneficence, confidentiality, autonomy and fidelity. It is recommended that while practicing psychology counsellor, psychologist or therapist should make sure that no ethical principles are violated intentionally or unintentionally. For example, that the participant does not experience any physical or emotional harm (Eysenck and Flanagan, 2001). Conclusion Psychology is the study of the mind and behaviour. It embraces all aspects of the human experience ranging from the functions of the brain to the actions of nations, from child development to care for the aged. In every conceivable setting from scientific research centres to mental healthcare services, the understanding of behaviour is the enterprise of psychologists. The science of psychology offers a deeper and empirical understanding of human nature and behaviour. Psychology helps in enhancing the quality of life due to its real life applications. ...read more.

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