Introduction to Psychology

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                        Introduction to Psychology

Oxford English Dictionary defines psychology as ‘’the science of the functions phenomena and nature of the human mind or soul’’. American Psychological Association (APA) describes psychology as, ‘’It is the study of the mind and behaviour. The discipline embraces all aspects of the human experience ranging from the functions of the brain to the actions of nations, from child development to care for the aged. In every conceivable setting from scientific research centres to mental healthcare services, ‘’the understanding of the behaviour’’ is the enterprise of psychologists’’. In addition, according to Feldman (1990), Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour of human and its mental procedures.

Psychology is regarded as a science since it utilises the steps of scientific methods to stud human behaviour. Psychology is empirical and systemic relying on the measurements. Scientific methods follow these given steps:

1. Problem Identification – identity what to study, for example, gender differences.

2. Hypothesis Formulation – a testable statement is formed by the researcher.

3. Data Collection – use scientific research methods to gather data, for example, lab experiments.

4. Analysis and Interpretation of Data – analyse the data collected, for example, change to quantitative to qualitative.

5. Conclusion Generalisation – in this step, the researcher will prove or disprove their original hypothesis and say what their findings have shown (Bailey et al, 2008).

Common Sense

On the contrary, people may come across findings which be viewed as common sense. In addition it can be grouped in three ways; it is a group of collective primary suppositions, it is defined as communal beliefs or aphorism, and it is a collective way of thinking. It has been argued that psychology is associated with these areas. Common sense is a significant yet inalienably risky information source accessible to psychologists. This can for a basis for a psychologists hypothesis. Common sense is a method for considering; a hazardous source for analysts with an inclination to work noiselessly in the unconscious area of the human psyche. Consequently, it has a tendency to be headstrong to examination, whereas in the meantime pushing an influential but concealed impact over psychologist’s perceiving that is mostly remain unevaluated and unanalysed (Pennington, 2002).

Differences between common sense and psychological terms

Everybody has thoughts regarding what lies underneath the actions experienced in daily routine. This is where scientific psychology differs from common sense. Many a time, these thoughts are effortlessly communicated, yet in some cases they are certain and outsides the knowledge of conscious awareness. For instance, some implicit theories of psychology depict the unspoken desires and prospects one has regarding interpersonal relationships between attributes. For example, one can perceive Mike as brave. He is liable to expect that he is likewise bold and certain, since these qualities are nearly identified in our implicit personality theories (Resenberg et al, 1982).

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Every sciences emerge as correlations adaptations and refinement of common sense (Oppenheimer, 1956), whereas, common sense is the regarded as the source from which science emerges and to which it should repeat. In this perspective, the science of psychology is no different.  

Fritz Heider, one of the pioneers of advanced psychology, saw the errand of psychology as the common sense systematisation. Psychology incorporates the investigation of self-evident, routine phenomena, enticed to include that it provides more than common sense. Nevertheless, Intuitive psychology and common sense provide a comprehension of actions of human that might appear to be ambiguous and ...

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