• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Levels Of Processing

Extracts from this document...


Psychology coursework - Levels Of Processing. Introduction Background research Craik and Lockhart first put forward levels of processing theory in 1972, It stated that different ways of inputting information into memory have different levels of efficiency, both when recalling information by writing it down and recalling it orally. The Levels Of Processing model (proposed by Craik & Lockhart), instead it suggests that the storage is determined by processing. Their key theoretical assumptions were that; 1) The depth of processing of a word has a big effect on its memorability and 2) Deeper processing longer lasting and stronger memory traces. (Levels of processing diagram - Which type of processing takes longer to reach the long term memory?) Firstly Craik and Tulving conducted an experiment where participants were given a word list and asked if the word was written in capital letters (structural processing) or if it rhymed with another word (phonetic processing) or if it was part of a group (semantic processing). The aim of this experiment was to see whether words processed semantically would be better remembered than those processed phonetically or structurally. They conducted the experiment by handing the participants a word list and setting 4 tasks for the respondents to do where they had to analyse words for their meaning, appearance or sound. For example participants were asked whether a word was written in capital letters (structural processing), whether it rhymed with another word (phonetic processing) ...read more.


As I do not have a lot of time to do this experiment I will have to use the opportunity sampling method, this will involve only choosing people who are willing to take part in my experiment however I will still be able to be sure all the participants fall into the age and gender gap if I perform the task in college, where there's a wide choice of participants suited to my age and gender group. If I chose a random sample from the list of available people, I would spend a long time chasing them up as some of the people might have had a lesson or work at particular times on the other hand if I chose a self-selecting method some of the participants might not have been willing to take part. Opportunity sample will insure that anyone that wants to take part will do it when they have time and are not distracted from the task by pressures of wanting to quit. Apparatus * Standard Instructions - in order to save time briefing people * Paper for sums (Exercise 2) - for participants to be enabled to do sums on * Pen - to record their answers * Quiet Room - to annihilate any chances of disruptions * Stopwatch - so I can make sure everyone one gets an equal amount of time not to be biased * Word list - which i prepared from the random words I thought up which matched the questions. ...read more.


One thing I was missing was the ecological validity. Because the experiment was not performed in the natural environment it had low ecological validity which could possibly affect how things are remembered. Validity could also have been affected by how much time people had. The pressure of someone being in the same room with them with the stop watch might have affected their memory in a way; a person might have being trying to concentrate on how fast he can do the exercise instead of how much he could remember and hence forget things faster resulting in anomalous results. Overall the experiment had good face validity as it tested what it was supposed to and came out with appropriate results Improving Validity In order to improve the validity I could conduct a field experiment instead. This way the participant would be caught in their natural environment and are more likely to reflect the natural ability of their memory. Reliability Some participants only remembered 1, 2 or 3 words which were processed structurally which brought the average down quite significantly, making it unreliable as a measure. This was also the case for the deeply processed words; as a matter of fact it was the same participants that had low Improving Reliability Implications of the Study When Craik and Tulving conducted their experiment their results showed that the semantically (deeply) processed words were remembered the best and structurally (shallowly) processed words were remembered much less. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Craik and Lockhart believed that depth is a critical concept for levels of processing ...

    4 star(s)

    with five other names but it would if it was placed with some other foreign words. Encoding in short term memory It is a common idea that short-term memory has less capacity and shorter duration. The concept of 'encoding' is less familiar though.

  2. Psychology Coursework

    when sad if he tested them again when hypnotised to be in a sad mood than a happy one. Williams and Hollan (1981) undertook a study that involved imagining the context you were once in, in order to help recall details from a previous experience.

  1. Free essay

    Correlation between age and sleep

    Firstly to improve reliability of the study a bigger number of participants should be use and the age scale of participant should be wider. A greater variety in the male to female ratio should exist. Also the study should take into account participant's socio-economic characteristics and health status.

  2. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    It is also convenient and easy to get access to this target population. 7. Select an appropriate level of statistical significance to be reached before the experimental/alternative hypothesis will be retained. The experimental hypothesis will be retained if the probability of the results in the resting and synonym conditions occurring by chance is 5% or less.

  1. The aim of this experiment was to test the idea that effort and not ...

    They presented participants with a word list, each word had an associated question e.g. 1) Word- does the word rhyme with...? 2) Word- does the word mean the same as...? After all the questions are answered an unexpected recall test is given. The words to do with similar meaning i.e.

  2. Investigating Levels Of Processing Using Images

    They accept that the original method was rather oversimplified and the retrieval process lacked detail. o Levels of processing - Hyde and Jenkins (1973) They used a type of approach involving presenting several groups of participants with the same list of nouns and asking each group to perform a different activity with the list, e.g., counting letters or describing words.

  1. How levels of processing affects memory

    Hypothesis: The amount of words recalled from the categorised word list will be higher than the amount of words recalled from the random list; this is because organised words will be processed at a deeper level as the words will easily be associated with each other, whereas the non-organised word lists will be processed at a shallow level.

  2. To see whether giving people a displacement activity before recalling the words would affect ...

    The short term memory can only hold 5-9 items at once so has a limited capacity. If these items are rehearsed they are then passed on and stored in the long term memory. Memories can only pass on to the long term memory by rehearsal, words can be lost from short term memory by displacement.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work