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Psychology AS revision - Stress and Workplace theories

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Introduction

Psychology AS revision Stress Who conducted the 1997 study to assess the relationship between control, stress and illness in the workplace? Marmot et al (1997) the researches surveyed over 7,000 london-based civil servants and obtained information about their employment grades, level of responsibility, perceived level of control and support received etc. when the civil servants were followed up 5 years later and their medical histories checked, the researchers discovered that those individuals on a lower pay grade, who felt like they had less control over their work were more likely to suffer from cardiovascular disorders. In fact, individuals on the lowest pay grade were four times more likely to suffer from fatal heart attacks than those on the highest. The researchers concluded that believing you have little control over your work induces stress and causes illness. This study is based on correlational research, therefore we cannot confidently infer that a perceived lack of control at work is the cause of illness; instead we only know for sure that they are somehow linked. ...read more.

Middle

Hardiness training ? teaches individuals to recognise the physical symptoms of stress, to analyse stressful situations, and to build confidence through meeting and overcoming challenges of increasing magnitude 3. Cognitive behavioural therapy ? changes the way individuals think during stressful situations and helps them cope with the stressor In which year did Holmes and Rahe conduct their study to assess the relationship between stress caused by major life changes and illness? Holmes and Rahe (1967): the researchers studied the hospital records of about 5000 patients for any major life changes that had occurred before the individual felt ill. They discorvered that patients were likely to have experienced major life changes before falling ill and the more serious life changes were linked to greater levels of stress and illness. The researchers were further by making a list of 43 common life events and asking volunteers to give each one a score between 1 and 100 for how stressful they deemed it. ...read more.

Conclusion

Explain the Hardy personality Hardy personalities have the following characteristics: 1. high levels of commitment ? work hard at jobs, relationships and other activities in life. 2. View change as a positive and an opportunity to better themselves ? they enjoy a challenge. 3. Believe they have control over their lives ? described as having an ?internal locus of control? By contrast, non-hardy personalities view change in a much more negative way and do not feel that they can cope with challenges. They do not believe that they have control over their lives, they give up easily, and do not see the point in bettering themselves or rising to a challenge. ?hardiness? could fluctuate with an individuals life experiences (could be high if they?re not currently experiencing stress but then plummet with the loss of a loved one) its also difficult to quantify and measure ?hardiness?, which makes it tricky to conduct any meaningful tests on. ...read more.

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