• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17

The aim of the investigation was to repeat the experiment carried out by Bower and Springston in 1970. A laboratory experiment was carried out to demonstrate how chunking could be used to increase the capacity of STM.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Summary The aim of the investigation was to repeat the experiment carried out by Bower and Springston in 1970. A laboratory experiment was carried out to demonstrate how chunking could be used to increase the capacity of STM. Participants were presented with a letter sequence. The independent variable was the chunking and the dependent variable was how many letters the participants recalled. A repeated measures design was used and the participants were an opportunist sample of 20 students, between the ages of 16-18 years. The results were analysed using the Wilcoxon test. Therefore the directional hypothesis that the participants remembered more of the acronyms than the non-related trigrams is significant. The graphs and the results extended this by showing that more acronyms were remembered than the non-related. Introduction Memory is the process of storing information and experiences for possible retrieval at some point in the future. This ability to create and retrieve memories is fundamental to all aspects of cognition and in a broader sense it is essential to our ability to function properly as human beings. Our memories allow us to store information about the world so that we can understand and deal with future situations on the basis of past experience. The process of thinking and problem solving relies heavily on the use of previous experience and memory also makes it possible for us to acquire language and to communicate with others. ...read more.

Middle

Materials Participants were provided with A4 sheets of paper and a pen to write with. A stopwatch was also used so as to time how long it took for each participant to recall the trigrams. The experimenter also had a list of 15 acronyms and 15 non-related trigrams. Stimulus materials were randomly chosen; the experimenter also had a sheet with standardised instructions. Procedure The experiment took place in the college. It was an opportunist sample, so selecting anyone who is available to take part in the experiment. Standardised instructions were followed like asking the participants if they would like to take part in a small experiment. At first the participants were presented with the acronyms, they were given time to recall and they were asked to write it down within 15 seconds. Later, they were provided with non-related trigrams and the above procedure was repeated again. Debriefing took place after the experiment was finished. A repeated measures design was used in both the experimental conditions. Controls Different participants have different states of mind or mood when participating in the experiment. Making the experiment as active and interesting as possible can control this. Timing could also be an extraneous variable as the participants may be better/worse at recalling at particular time. To avoid this stopwatch could be used so that the participants have equal amount of time when recalling letters. ...read more.

Conclusion

Demand characteristics also occur when participants try to make sense of the situation they find themselves in and act accordingly. These may seriously threaten the validity of an experiment. A further possible problem concerns the level of public knowledge (or the lack of it) about psychology- how an individual perceives psychology may affect their responses in the research setting. In this experiment the participants are mostly A-level students. This raises the question of the extent to which it is reasonable to generalize the results of such experimental studies to other groups of groups of people. Implications of the research and future research that can be carried out The results from this study show that more participants recall more acronyms than non-related trigrams. In Bower and Springston experiment, the findings were the same; participants remember more of the acronyms than the non-related trigrams. These results have implications particularly the students. According to Bower and Springston participant recall more acronyms, but is it necessary to answer an exam essay question being as simple as running through the mnemonic in our mind? In this experiment participants recalled the trigrams better from the beginning and the end of the list than from the middle of the list. So this area could be explored in more detail. Conclusion The experimental hypothesis, that more participants recall more acronyms than the non-related trigrams has been accepted. So chunking increases the capacity of Short term Memory. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. SHORT TERM MEMORY

    This would also hopefully avoid unreliable results. Different target audiences could also be tested at the same time for example 15-16 year olds; this would help us see whether age is a variable in such experiments or whether it simply has no affect.

  2. Carry out an experiment on participants to investigate proactive interference on memory recall, using ...

    The second stimulus/response sheet was collected in. Each participant was then debriefed, explaining what the experiment was investigating and reassuring them of anonymity and if they did not withdraw, asking for the last time if they wanted their results to be included in the experiment. They then signed the participant consent form (Appendix 4)

  1. "An experiment to see the effect of chunking on short-term memory recall".

    Method Method and Design An experimental method was used to collect data using a repeated measures design. Using a repeated measures design means that you do not have to use so many participants, however order reffects might take place, which is when performing one task affects the performance of the next task.

  2. The Effects of Chunking and Distraction on Short Term Memory Recall

    and Miller (1956). A chunk is simply defined as a collection of elements having strong associations with one another but weal associations with other chunks (Gobet et al, 2001). An example of a chunk is illustrated below. G O H T A C P U D D O G H

  1. effects of chunking and unchunking on short term memory

    Slak (1970) found that subjects who found a number sequence such as 265070193 very difficult, by using a mnemonic, a word or group of words that can be associated with the information being remembered, like BAFDILTUN could learn the letter-code equivalent much quicker.

  2. The effect of chunking on memory recall in STM.

    Miller (1956) disagreed with this. He developed a chunking method. Miller having reviewed earlier studies of the short term memory said that it could hold 7 +/- 2 pieces of information. So Miller said that it can hold between five and nine pieces of information.

  1. Does chunking help with memory?

    See appendix 1. The participants studied were split into 2 groups, on group were given the list in the correct hierarchical form, the other group were given the same words in a similar structure however the words were mixed up. Rationale The results of Bower's study showed that the list organised by conceptual

  2. Report on Psychological Research into Eyewitness Testimony

    gave some of the participants weakly, semantically associated prompts that were not the original cue word. Results showed that these words did not facilitate recall. From these findings they were able to conclude that the specific retrieval cues given at the time of encoding helped to facilitate recall.20 This effect would be the same in the cognitive interview.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work