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The aim of the study is to investigate whether recall is more effective when categorical clustering is used.

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I. Introduction Aim of the Study The aim of the study is to investigate whether recall is more effective when categorical clustering is used. Literature Review Theories which link recall directly to the way in which the information is encoded are very well supported and accepted among cognitive theorists; however, there is a lack of research on specific tricks to encoding which may aid in recall efficiency (Roy, 1967). The theories on this are widely accepted but, in fact, are poorly supported due to their common sense value. There is a need for more research about the ways in which environment directly effects efficiency of recall. Considering all of the research done on the correlation between encoding methods and recall, it can be seen that recall is directly affected by the modality and physical characteristics of encoding (Squire, 1987). Mnemonic devices are techniques to improve retention and most involve some combination of vivid visual imagery, organization of information into meaningful units, and hierarchies, and association with well-learned information (Winn, 2001). Many different memorization techniques have been designed to accommodate the unique way that every brain encodes the most effectively. Mnemonic devices have been devised to help the naturally most effective way for each individual's brain to encode information, but are geared towards visual learners. ...read more.


III. Methods: Participants The entire population of IB Juniors may be used in the experiment; however, the statistical concepts of sampling make it unnecessary. The sample will consist of IB Juniors from Mrs. Jamison's 3rd and 6th period classes, and from various other teachers which give informed consent for the researchers to talk to their classrooms about the experiment and offer the opportunity for the students to volunteer. The participants will be a representative group of the entire population of IB juniors. Students which are taking psychology don't create any errors in population validity, as they haven't participated in enough training in psychology for their results to be altered in any way because of it. To obtain a random sample from the IB Junior class, students from random classrooms will be asked to volunteer. A random sample of 30 IB Juniors is used in the experiment. They are all 16-17 years of age and have similar academic backgrounds and capabilities, as they are all in the International Baccalaureate program. IV. Methods: Procedure Materials The sample experiment used two groups of materials. One half of the participants will be given a list of 18 words with 3 subject headings on the top which read, "The following words fall into three categories: Food, Clothing, and Furniture." The other half of the participants will be given the same list without the category headings. ...read more.


A larger sample number such as 30 could have provided more accurate data and also been enough to run statistical tests that pick up many more slight differences than the Mann-Whitney U test. All of the students were enrolled in the International Baccalaureate program and have been trained to be extremely adept in memorization and they have been trained to retain as much information as possible. The high level of academic ability was thought of as a good way to control for academic background, but a more mediocre level of academic capability may have shown the effect of the categories themselves instead of the effect of years of rigorous academic training Many improvements could be made to this experiment to make it run more smoothly and perhaps produce results which are more significant. The major problem in this experiment was the lack of participants. Perhaps students of a younger age who haven't been trained so much would give more relevant results to mnemonic studies. It has also been hypothesized that the time given to the students for them to write down the words was too long, and that if a shorter period was given the students would have to rely on impulse more than deep thought. This could be more effective in studying the direct effect of categorization. ...read more.

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