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Usful Psychology Faces

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1. Capacity is the ability to absorb, retain and contain information. Capacity refers to the amount of information a certain person can store and the ability to recall this information. 2. Duration refers to how long an individual can hold a certain amount of information for. This could refer to how many individual digits you can remember or how many groups of items you can recall. 3. Encoding refers to transforming one type of information into another. Encoding in psychology can refer to the process in which one stimulus which could be visual, acoustic or semantic is encoded into a certain memory which could be long term memory or short term memory. 4. The capacity of the short term memory was studied by two famous psychologists, Jacob and Miller. Jacob's study into the capacity of the STM found that the average STM span was between 5 and 9 individual items which is a very limited storage capacity. A study by Miller agreed with Jacob in the sense he agreed that the capacity of the STM is very limited ...read more.


Other research was also used to back up the point that the LTM and the STM encode differently, one of these was a study by Wickelgren and Baddeley who found that when storing items into the STM if a participant is given information consisting of acoustically similar and dissimilar words and semantically similar and dissimilar words. They found that the participants found it harder to store and recall semantic words compared to acoustic words which had no affect. 7. Bahrick's studies into the duration into the long term memory found that people can remember certain types of information for almost a lifetime. Bahrick found that information can be stored for over 47years if sparked by a stimulus. Bahrick set out this investigation using graduates from a particular high school in America over a 50-year period. A group of participants were given a group of names and asked to select the name that matched the person. The other group were only asked to name the person with no visual stimulus. ...read more.


Sperling also stated that we cannot control what enters our sensory memory, but we do actively select certain bits and parts of information for transmission to the short term memory by paying attention to certain subjects of stimuli however a lot of information that enters out sensory memory is lost. Sperling also design three separate sensory stores that he believed were for the different senses. Sperling came up with these conclusions after coming up with two separate experiments; the second was an improvement on the first looking deeper into the sensory memory. 10. SPECIMEN PAPER 11. Question 1 12. Information is transferred from the sensory memory to the short term memory according to the multi-store model by paying attention to a certain subject through the different sensory stores which are Iconic, Echoic and Haptic. When an individual experiences a stimulus on one of their senses or sensory stores the information is automatically processes from the sensory memory to the short-term memory where if repeated could later be sent to the long term memory if not the information then decays once reaching the short-term memory. ...read more.

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    rehearsal failure as for example the participants could be asked to watch television for 5 minutes instead of listening to music for 1. More experimenters could also be added to the experiments while they are occurring to ensure the fairness of the testing through preventing some having more time than others to write the words down.

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    This is a weakness as it is not possible to generalise the information collected and come to a conclusion. Another weakness of the research is that few mistakes were made with the similar sounding words of the list, it was predicted that many mistakes would be made here as was found in the Alan Baddeley study.

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