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An investigation into the behaviour of mono-di-tri protic acids with a pure metal.

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Introduction

Investigating advanced reaction rates. Aim In this investigation I will examine how certain variables affect the rate of reaction. In particular I will attempt to evaluate the orders of the reactions, and whether this order is confined to a certain concentration range, and also I will aim to approximate the activation energy through observing the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction. I will be using Magnesium (alkaline earth metal) during all of my reactions and a range of acids. For a successful outcome, careful planning must be undertaken, where preliminary work will be of key importance in determining quantities and ranges of reactants, and temperatures to use, as well as selecting the most appropriate apparatus and laboratory techniques to be used in the full investigation. Theory In this section I will explain the theoretical chemistry of the variables in my investigation, through my understanding of rates of reactions as well as the use of information from various sources including, books, the internet, and encyclopaedias which will be fully listed at the end of this project. The rate determining step of a chemical reaction is one which is the slowest, and it is this which is represented in a rate equation. The rate equation cannot be calculated from the balanced chemical equation, but has to be found through experimental procedures. ...read more.

Middle

When a variable is changed, all he others must remain constant in order to ensure a fair test, and that I can be certain that only the changing variable is affecting the reaction. For example, if when the temperature is changed, I must ensure that other factors such as surface area, temperature, concentration and type of acid must remain constant and the same is repeated for each experiment. Risk assessment To ensure that my experiment will be carried out safely, safety goggles will be on at all stages of the experiment, and protective clothing must be worn at all time whilst conducting the investigation. The practical will be carried out in plenty of space, clear of bags and coats. It is also imperative to consider the safety of other pupils that may be close to the practical. Therefore no one who is not involved in the practical shall be allowed in close vicinity of the experiment. 2M Hydrochloric acid is a corrosive, irritant substance, and so care will be taken to avoid contact with skin and preventing spillages. Care must be taken with all other acids, and when making different concentrations. Although only small volumes of Hydrogen gas will be produced, my experiment will be positioned away from open flames, due to the flammability of Hydrogen and the potential danger this can cause. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is just an approximate value, as errors are introduced due to the equipment that was used, such as the thermometer and stop watch, and human error in determining when the solid magnesium strip had fully dissolved. This value is in the range of the values obtained by reordered by other students, and is close to the mean value of 23 KJmol-1. Conclusion In this final part of the report I will bring together all of the data that I have analysed, and see whether I have achieved my aims outlined in my plan. Firstly, the orders and the rate equations for the different types of acids, hydrochloric, sulphuric, and phosphoric acid at room temperature were obtained. The hydrochloric acid reaction gave a first order reaction, where the concentration vs. time graph showed exponential decay, the half life seemed fairly constant, as it always took approximately (given the possible errors) the same amount of time for the concentration to halve.. For the diprotic, Sulphuric acid I found that the order was likely to be second due to the half life not being constant, it increased as the reaction went on. As for the phosphoric acid, it was unclear whether it was first or second order. However, having drawn first order plots it seemed that I as more likely to be a first order reaction. ...read more.

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