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AS and A Level: Organic Chemistry
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Five equations you must know for organic chemistry
- 1 Alcohol + carboxylic acid = ester + water (eg CH3OH + CH3CH2COOH becomes CH3OOCH2CH3 + H2O)
- 2 Alkene + hydrogen = alkane (eg CH2=CH2 + H2 becomes CH3CH3)
- 3 Alkene + water = alcohol (eg CH2=CH2 + H2O becomes CH3CH2OH)
- 4 Halogenoalkane + hydroxide ion = alcohol + halide ion (eg CH3Br + OH- becomes CH3OH + Br-)
- 5 Alkene + hydrogen bromide = halogenoalkane (eg CH2=CH2 + HBr becomes CH3CH2Br)
Five facts about alcohols
- 1 Primary alcohols are oxidised into aldehydes and water, which are then oxidised into carboxylic acids. Secondary alcohols are oxidised into ketones and water. Tertiary alcohols cannot be oxidised.
- 2 Alcohols are oxidised by acidified potassium dichromate (H+/K2Cr2O7). This starts off orange and will turn green if it oxidises something (so with tertiary alcohols it will stay orange).
- 3 There are two ways of making alcohols: fermentation and hydration of alkenes. Fermentation is good because it uses renewable resources and does not take much energy, however it can only produce alcohol up to 14% before the yeast die.
- 4 Alcohols are soluble in water as they can make hydrogen bonds with the water. However, the “carbon chain” attached to the OH cannot interact with water and is insoluble. This means that alcohols become more insoluble the longer the carbon chain.
- 5 Alcohols have a very high melting and boiling point compared to alkanes of the same chain length. This is because they can form strong hydrogen bonds with each other that require a lot of energy to break.
Five facts about hydrocarbons
- 1 The longer the carbon chain the higher the higher the boiling point, as there will be more points of contact and stronger van der Waals forces.
- 2 The more branched the carbon chain the lower the boiling point, as the molecules will not be able to pack as close together and will have weaker van der Waals forces.
- 3 Hydrocarbons are insoluble in water as they cannot make intermolecular forces with them.
- 4 Hydrocarbons have low boiling and melting points as the only intermolecular forces that can hold them together are weak van der Waals forces which require little energy to break.
- 5 When processing crude oil (a hydrocarbon), the aim of the game is to get short, highly branched hydrocarbons. This will increase their volatility and make them a better fuel. We do this through: fractional distillation (sorts them into different sizes), cracking (splits long chains into short chains), isomerisation and reforming (makes the chains branched and cyclic).
in cookers and heating devices Isomer of ethanol An isomer is when two molecules have the same molecular formula but differ in the way they are presented in their displayed formula. Name of isomer: Methoxy methane, also referred to as dimethyl ether Type of isomerism: Functional group isomerism, this is because the functional group has changed from being alcohol to ether. The molecular formula for Methoxy methane: CH3OCH3 The functional group of Methoxy methane: Ether, this is because Methoxy methane has an alkoxy group -O- in it.
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* I will use ethanoic anhydride in a chemical fume cupboard. * While conducting my experiment I will keep all my equipment in my area and not take up to much space so that my neighbour can have enough space to conduct their experiment. * When my experiment is finished I will wash my hand thoroughly with hand wash. Observation 1. First step was to dissolve 1.0g of phenylammonium chloride in 30cm3 of water. The phenylammonium chloride dissolved completely in the water, producing a fairly clear solution. 2. Second step was to prepare a solution of 6.0g of sodium ethanoate in 25cm3 of water.
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* Brady's reagent is very harmful when inhaled or ingested, avoid contact with mouth and avoid inhalation of fumes. * Also Brady's reagent is explosive- DO NOT HEAT! Test with Tollens reagent (silver mirror test). Test identifies: the presence of an aldehyde. Apparatus: * Tollens reagent * Clean test tube * Beaker * Warm water Method: add Tollens reagent to the solution of the unknown compound in a clean test tube. Place the test tube in a beaker containing warm water; by doing this you are warming the solution mixture. Take note to observations and ensure that the solution is not allowed to dry out; as this becomes explosive once dry.
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OBSERVATIONS: A colour change to colourless indicates an alkene, any other colour change shows Alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester or phenol. 2. Test unknown with universal indicator. THEROY: universal indicator is a mixed indicator, several indicators with different pH values. When added to different solutions of different pH different indicators change colour, the colour you see is a result of the different indicators mixing together. The colours have been recorded and linked to a colour chart. EQUITMENT: universal indicator, Pipette, Test tube.
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= -420 J AVG = -455 J moles = mass 2.5 = 0.025 molar mass 100 ?H1 = -18.22 units = kJ/mol ?H2 The Reaction between CaO + HCL J = m.c. ?T is used to calculate the energy produced using heat capacity of HCL, and 50ml of HCL with the temperature change in the reaction. J = m.c. ?T 50 x 4.2 x 10.5 = -2205 J 50 x 4.2 x 10 = -2100 J 50 x 4.2 x 9 = -1890 J AVG = -2065 J moles = mass 1.4 = 0.025 molar mass 56 ?H2 = -82.6
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This is because an oxidation reaction was taking place. The dichromate got reduced to form chromium ions and the ethanol got oxidised. It was a redox reaction because electrons were both lost and gained. * As I slowly added the sodium dichromate to the sulphuric acid I recorded that the solution started to bubble, this also showed me that a reaction was taking place * Furthermore as I was adding the sodium dichromate to the sulphuric acid I noticed that when touching the pear shaped flask it was warm.
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3. Anti-bumping granules were added into a water bath. The beaker containing the acid mixture was put into the boiling water bath. 4. The beaker was removed from the water bath 5 minutes after solids were found to form in the mixture. 5. The beaker was cooled by putting the beaker into an ice bath. 6. The reaction mixture were filtered by suction using the following set-up: 7. After a few minutes, the suction was stopped by removing the Buchner funnel from the flask. 8. The residue was soaked with water, and the suction was resumed for a few more minutes.
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* Gas Syringe (100cm3) - To measure out volume of gas. * Chemicals: Powdered copper carbonate3 CuCO3, used as a paint pigment, varnish pigment, seed treatment fungicide and in animal and poultry feed. Plan of action: This experiment is designed to find out which equation is the correct one. It makes use of the fact that each equation states that copper carbonate produces a different number of moles of gas when heated. A known mass of copper carbonate will be heated, and the volume of gas given off will be measured.
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For a titration between and weak acid and a strong alkali, phenolphthalein is used as the indicator. For a titration between a strong acid and strong alkali, either methyl orange or phenolphthalein can be used as the indicator, although methyl orange is usually used. For a titration between weak acid and a weak alkali, no indicator is suitable, and a pH meter, conductivity meter or temperature probe has to be used. Given this information I can work out that methyl orange will be the most suitable indicator to use because we are using sulphuric acid, being a strong acid and sodium carbonate, being a weak alkali.
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Vitamin C. The objective of this project is the determination of the amount of vitamin C in drinks. The investigation helps us know which brand and which type of fruit drink contains more vitamin C.
The result may give an indication to us in choosing the suitable fruit drink for ourselves. DCPIP is an oxidizing agent which can oxidize Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid). By titrating the selected drinks with standardized DCPIP solution, the amount of the vitamin C content in each drink can be determined. The Vitamin C content of five types of fruit juice of two brands, Hi-C and Vita, will be analysed. The result will then be compared and interpreted. Content Abstract----------------P.4 Objectives---------------P.6 Experiment-------------P.7 Conclusion--------------P.14 Reference----------------P.15 Objectives Through this project, we would like to find 1. the content of the vitamin C in the Vita and Hi-C Corporation of different types of fruit drink; 2.
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It also can be used as a deoxidizing agent to reduce other substances to make alloys.  137Ba Appearance: soft silvery metal Electron configuration: [Xe] 6s2 Uses: Barium compounds, and especially barite (BaSO4), are extremely important to the petroleum industry. Barium oxide is used to facilitate the release of electrons.  However it can never be found in nature in its pure form due to its reactivity with air.  Methods Experiment 1: reaction of the metals with water Equipments: 100cm3 beaker Tweezers Chemicals: Magnesium metals Calcium metals Barium metals Universal indicator solution 100cm3 beaker was half filled with water.
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This experiment had three sub-experiments. First was to build a simple circuit. Second was to make an electrochemical cell. At last was to make battery with lemon, electrodes. METHOD EXPERIMENT I. A circuit was set up as in the diagram below: After setting up the circuit, the switch was closed and observation was recorded. EXPERIMENT II. The apparatus was set up as the left-hand-side diagram. A small trip of filter paper was soaked in saturated KNO3 solution. One end of the strip was placed in one beaker, which contained FeSO4 (a.q) or CuSO4 (a.q), and the other end of the strip in the other beaker.
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The role of prostaglandins in the body is that it stimulates the inplammatory response and production of pain and fever. In order to do this, the aspirin has to attach itself onto the enzyme cyclooxygenase 2, also known as COX-2. The body produces this COX-2 in order to find chemicals in the tissues and make them into prostaglandins. By attaching to the COX-2, the aspirin keeps it from doing what it is supposed to do. When we take aspirin, the Aspirin travels to the stomach, where it then dissolves.
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With an alpha decay an atomic nucleus breaks up and it emits an alpha particle, which contains two protons and two neutrons which is equivalent to a helium-4 nucleus. Figure 1 In beta decay, a neutron in the nucleus of an atom is changed to a proton and electron. The electron is released as a beta particle. Figure 2 Figure 3 A nuclear physicist did experiments, which involve bombarding atoms of heavy elements with low energy neutrons. Neutrons are uncharged and so are not deflected by the electrically charged electrons outside or by protons inside nuclei.
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It is known the colour of the precipitate for silver chloride is white, silver bromide is creamy and silver iodide is yellow. As a result, during the reaction, the colour of the solution will changed from clear colourless to the colour of the precipitate which mentioned as the above. By the time that the silver nitrate solution is added into the halogenoalkanes mixture (which is the start of the reaction). The stopwatch will be press started to record the time needed for the precipitate to form.
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Before I do this, I will need to carry out a few calculations to determine how concentrated the HCl will be. This balanced equation shows the reaction that takes place when calcium hydroxide (limewater) is added to hydrochloric acid: Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 2HCl (aq) CaCl2 (aq) + 2H2O (l) Concentration of Calcium Hydroxide I will now need to work out the number of moles per decimetre cubed of the calcium hydroxide required in this reaction using the following formula: Concentration in mol dm-3 = concentration in g dm-3 / RMM I have already been given the approximate concentration of limewater which is 1 g dm-3 The RMM of Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)
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Safety precautions: Eye protection must be worn at all times when using the chemicals. The sulphuric acid is corrosive, so wear protective gloves. When using the pipette, you will need to hold it close to the end where you are attaching the pipette filter, so the pipette does not snap or break. Keep the area in which you're working in clean; make use all spills are cleaned up straight away. Chemical/ Procedure Amounts/ concentration Hazard Precaution Sodium Carbonate 2.65g small Sodium carbonate powder may irritate the lungs if you breathe it in.
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The colour has been linked to a specific pH and a colour chart provided. SAFETY: Follow general safety procedures and be aware that universal indicator can be dangerous so always make reference to hazcard 32. EQUIPMENT: Universal indicator Test tube Pipette 2. Test for phenol PROCEDURE: Add several drops of bromine water into a test tube which if filled with 1cm� of the unknown. OUTCOME: A white precipitate formed indicates a phenol present; no change shows a carboxylic acid. EXPLANATION: Aqueous phenol decolourises bromine water to form a white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol The presence in phenol of the -OH group increases the susceptibility of the benzene ring to electrophilic attack.
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Bond Bond Enthalpy kj mol-� C-F 467 C-Cl 346 C-Br 290 C-I 228 Bond Polarity Halogens are electronegative atoms. Attaching a halogen atom to a carbon atom creates a polar covalent bond. Carbon and halogens have different electronegativities (shown in table below) and halogenoalkanes have polar molecules with a polar C-X bond. The polarity produces an electron deficient carbon atom, C ?+ which is important in the reactions of halogenoalkanes as it promotes nucleophilic attack, resulting in the displacement of the halide ion.
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287.53 276.04 274.04 218.79 Final mass of spirit lamp + alcohol (g) 286.28 274.30 273.10 217.88 Mass of alcohol burnt (g) 1.25 1.74 0.94 0.91 Number if mole of alcohol burnt (n) 0.0272 0.0235 0.0107 0.00901 Initial temperature of calorimeter 15.8 16.8 16.2 15 Final temperature of calorimeter 36 38.2 36 37.2 Temperature change 20.2 21.4 19.8 22.2 ?HC = (C � ?T)/n [kJ/mol] -1374.4 -1682.7 -3427.2 -4600.8 4) Calculation/interpretation: The calibration of the calorimeter, using propan-1-ol: Heat energy released during the experiment (E)
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Ethanol - CH3CH2OH : molecular mass = 46g Energy per gram = Energy Released � Average mass change = 12.510 � 1.02 = 12.3 KJ Energy per mole = Energy per gram x molecular mass = 12.3 x 46 = 566 KJ mol -1 3.) Propan-1-ol - CH3CH2CH2OH : molecular mass = 60g Energy per gram = Energy Released � Average mass change = 12.510 � 0.77 = 16.3 KJ Energy per mole = Energy per gram x molecular mass = 16.3 x 60 = 978 KJ mol -1 4.)
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Replace the burner and light wick. 5. Heat the water until it becomes 15 oC warmer and extinguish the burner, replace lid, whenever your burner is not in use. 6. Reweigh your burner and lid and record the result. 7. Repeat the experiment with the other alcohol burners keeping each variable the same, record your results. Use the same calorimeter but let it cool down between each experiment; clean off any soot deposits, which could affect the conduction of heat.
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It is useful to my investigation to investigate these particular alcohols as I can clearly view the effect on the enthalpy changes of combustion because the carbon atom increases by one each time. Name of alcohol Shortened structural formula Molecular Formula Methanol CH3OH CH3OH Ethanol CH3CH2OH C2H5OH Propan-1ol CH3CH2C2OH C3H7OH Butan-1-ol CH3CH2CH2CH2OH C4H9OH Pentan-1-ol CH3CH2CH2CH2 CH2OH C5H11OH The names, for example, Propan-1-ol and Butan-1-ol and Pentan-1-ol refer to the position of the -OH group on the carbon chain. Propanol, Butanol and Pentanol are long enough carbon chains to form isomers, which means that they have the same chemical formula but a different structural formula.
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Experiment to find out the enthalpy changes that took place for the reaction between copper sulphate and zinc.
Enthalpy change is given the symbol ?H where ? is pronounced as change. ?H = H products - H reactants. As ?H is a measure of energy transferred to or from known amounts of reactants, the units are Kilojoules per mole When we compare the enthalpy changes of various reactions we must use standard conditions such as known temperatures pressure amounts and concentration of reactants or products. This allows us to compare the standard enthalpy changes for reactions. A standard enthalpy for a reaction takes place under these standard conditions.
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