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Crude oil as a source of organic chemicals.

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Introduction

Hydrocarbon Fuels Project Crude oil as a source of organic chemicals. Crude oil accounts for much of the wealth of the industrialised world. Crude oil exploitation has led to fuels for heating, generating electricity and powering motor vehicles. As well as used for fuel, products of crude oil are processed into petrochemicals for use in industry. In the UK the chemical industry provides jobs for 250,000 people. This means that the UK is very dependent upon crude oil and its products. Crude oil is made up of many types of hydrocarbons. There are three main types of hydrocarbon. These are arenes, cycloalkenes and alkanes. To separate the hydrocarbons in crude oil we use a process called fractional distillation. This process involves heating the crude oil in a fractional distillation column. At different temperatures different fractions evaporate off and then they cool at different levels of the column. Now each fraction contains a small mixture of hydrocarbons, that's boiling points are fairly similar. ...read more.

Middle

Bimetallic catalysts are used in reforming reactions. An example is using a cluster of platinum and rhenium atoms, as the catalyst, to remove hydrogen from methylcyclohexane to form methlybenzene. The metal clusters used are from between 1nm and 5nm thick and are deposited on an inert support. Hydrocarbons and other organic compounds as fuels. A fuel is anything that is used on a large scale to transfer energy to its surroundings. The fossil fuels, coal, oil and gas, account for 90% of the energy used in most industrialised countries. Hydroelectricity and nuclear power supply 9% with the other 1% of energy including solar power. To be a good fuel it must make this reaction: Fuel + Oxygen (or other oxidiser) --> Oxidation Producs + Energy Transfer Hydrocarbons are a good source of energy because they burn easily to give off energy, they are available in large quantities and they can be stored easily. However, they, when burned, give off harmful gases, as do all organic compounds apart from hydrogen, when burned. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, they are expensive to use and radioactive waste products are harmful. Moving wind and water through turbines is becoming increasingly popular in many countries. They are both renewable and make no pollution. However, both are expensive to set up and can be noisy and ugly on the landscape. Solar panels take in solar heat to heat up water. Photovoltaic cells convert light energy to electrical energy. Both of these require sunlight that is not always plentiful, with there being none at night. But both are renewable and make no pollution or waste products. Pumping water underground to hot rocks heats up the water so that it can be used to heat buildings and homes. This is geothermal energy and there is a lot of it. However, the hot rocks are not found just anywhere and it is expensive to set up. Hydrogen is easily extracted from water and is proven to work in powering cars. However, it is difficult to store and dangerous as it is highly flammable. Some batteries are already used to power delivery vehicles and there are plans to make different batteries to provide more power for the vehicles. ...read more.

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