• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Determination of the concentration of limewater solution in g dm-3 as accurately as possible against a standard solution of HCl acid

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

PLAN The aim of my investigation is to determine the concentration of limewater solution in g dm-3 as accurately as possible against a standard solution of HCl acid. BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT LIMEWATER Limewater solution is a clear coloured saturated Ca(OH)2 produced when calcium carbonate (limestone) is decomposed to form calcium oxide CaO. Water is then added to form CaO (quicklime), to produce slaked lime. Again, excess water is added to form Ca(OH)2 , limewater. Limewater, which is an alkali is used principally in medicine as an antacid as a neutraliser for acidic poisoning or treatment of burns. Limewater as an alkali would have a pH scale of 9-14. I am going to set up my equipment in the form of an acid/base titration since it is a way of measuring quantities of reactants and can be very useful in determining an unknown concentration or following the progress of a reaction which is related to my investigation. The reaction is between an acid (HCl) and alkali, (Ca (OH)2) and therefore it's a neutralisation reaction. In order to determine the concentration of limewater in an experimental way, it is very important to use the most appropriate equipment available. ...read more.

Middle

I am going to use a graduated pipette in my experiment as it will help me to achieve a more accurate result compared to one that is not graduated. I am going to repeat my investigation 3 times to make sure I get reliable results. The titre volumes must be concordant to 0.1 cm3 for maximum reliability. HAZARDS OF CHEMICALS The chemicals that we will use are limewater and hydrochloric acid and the hazards are: Hydrochloric acid is very corrosive and irritant. Limewater (alkali) is irritating to eyes, skin and respiratory system. Its reaction with water is vigorous and generates heat. The reaction between these two chemicals will also produce calcium chloride and water both of which have no hazards and is not dangerous. Phenolphthalein, which will be used as well, has no dangers to health and will not react with any other chemical to produce anything dangerous. The chemicals and concentrations I have access to are; * Limewater (250 cm3) containing approximately 1g dm-3 of calcium hydroxide. * Hydrochloric acid (exactly 2.00 mol dm-3 concentration) * Distilled water (to dilute acid) * Phenolphthalein indicator solution In order to be safe in an experimental environment, I am going to use a list of safety equipments. ...read more.

Conclusion

10. First record the reading of the burette at eye level so that you don't misread when measuring. Then release the solution of HCl into the pink coloured limewater solution whilst observing the conical flask and gently swirling it. When the colour start to change halfway between pink and colourless, add the HCl drop by drop by doing this the end point could be reached and you will not be under it or overshoot it. Stop adding the HCl when the pink colour changes to become colourless and record the result from the burette. The white tile underneath the conical flask helps to give us a better view of the colour change. 11. By reading off the side of the burette what volume has been used will give you the volume of HCl acid required to neutralise the alkali. However the result is not accurate enough and anomalies do occur therefore the test must be carried out a further 3 times for any accurate results to become apparent or I can keep repeating the titration until successive titres are within about 0.1 cm3. Each time you make a reading you must be careful to note the starting volume of acid in the burette and the end volume making sure there are no parallax errors. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Determination of the Amounts of Sodium Hydroxide Solution and Sodium Carbonate in a Mixed ...

    of mole of Na2CO3= 1.12X10-3/2= 5.6 X 10-4 mol. Mass of NaOH = 7.862 X10-4 X (23 + 17) = 0.03145g Mass of Na2CO3= 5.6 X 10-4 X (46 + 12 + 16X3) = 0.0593 g So, the percentages by mass of NaOH and Na2CO3 are 34.7% and 65.3% respectively.

  2. Preparation of Standard solution and Standardization of Hydrochloric acid

    standard solution made also have relatively high purity .This can prevent the impurities in the solution from reacting with the chemical to be titrated (e.g. HCL (aq)) If impurities are present, side reactions may take place and other new chemicals, which is undesirable in that experiment, will be produced .Eventually,

  1. Drug: Antacid Effectiveness Analysis To determine the neutralizing ability of antacids in different ...

    While this provided an almost immediate relief, possibly due to coating of the stomach lining, the relief was an illusion. Milk and cheese are high protein foods. Protein is digested by protease enzymes. The enzyme pepsin, which requires a highly acidic environment, begins this digestion in the stomach.

  2. Acid-Base Titrations.

    It is normal to choose a concentration of base that will give us a reasonable volume to add, so that the volume can be accurately measured and yet not be too large. Here we choose 0.100 molar NaOH and will therefore require about 100 mL of it, since the stoichiometric

  1. Lab Report. Objective: To determine the concentration of unknown standard sodium hydroxide solution ...

    The most significant evidence that shows the result was not reliable was that theoretically, the enthalpy change of neutralization between ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide should never be higher than that between nitric acid and sodium hydroxide. This is because nitric acid is a strong acid while ethanoic acid is

  2. Determination of the content of Mg (OH)2 in an indigestion remedy by back titration ...

    with the specific procedure that must be followed. Secondly, the measuring cylinder used to measure the Milk of Magnesia mixture could have been rinsed out with distilled water and the contents emptied into the conical flask, more distilled water, which had been measured could have been added to make a larger volume as this would not affect the

  1. How are standard solutions prepared & how is titration carried out in industry

    analyte, also a titrant is also injected is a series of steps, this is a reference cell set up with similar conditions that allows us to monitor the behaviour of the reaction which is taking place. The monitor screen will show some data at multiple stages of the reaction; this

  2. This investigation is an investigation to find the concentration of two unknown solutions, Na0H ...

    To be sure that the two solution are mixing together the conical flask should be rotated around to be sure of even mix. When the pinkish tone starts to become colourless the tap on the burette should be closed and opened repeatedly to allow drops of Hydrochloric acid to join the Sodium Hydroxide.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work