• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Determination of the concentration of limewater solution in g dm-3 as accurately as possible against a standard solution of HCl acid

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

PLAN The aim of my investigation is to determine the concentration of limewater solution in g dm-3 as accurately as possible against a standard solution of HCl acid. BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT LIMEWATER Limewater solution is a clear coloured saturated Ca(OH)2 produced when calcium carbonate (limestone) is decomposed to form calcium oxide CaO. Water is then added to form CaO (quicklime), to produce slaked lime. Again, excess water is added to form Ca(OH)2 , limewater. Limewater, which is an alkali is used principally in medicine as an antacid as a neutraliser for acidic poisoning or treatment of burns. Limewater as an alkali would have a pH scale of 9-14. I am going to set up my equipment in the form of an acid/base titration since it is a way of measuring quantities of reactants and can be very useful in determining an unknown concentration or following the progress of a reaction which is related to my investigation. The reaction is between an acid (HCl) and alkali, (Ca (OH)2) and therefore it's a neutralisation reaction. In order to determine the concentration of limewater in an experimental way, it is very important to use the most appropriate equipment available. ...read more.

Middle

I am going to use a graduated pipette in my experiment as it will help me to achieve a more accurate result compared to one that is not graduated. I am going to repeat my investigation 3 times to make sure I get reliable results. The titre volumes must be concordant to 0.1 cm3 for maximum reliability. HAZARDS OF CHEMICALS The chemicals that we will use are limewater and hydrochloric acid and the hazards are: Hydrochloric acid is very corrosive and irritant. Limewater (alkali) is irritating to eyes, skin and respiratory system. Its reaction with water is vigorous and generates heat. The reaction between these two chemicals will also produce calcium chloride and water both of which have no hazards and is not dangerous. Phenolphthalein, which will be used as well, has no dangers to health and will not react with any other chemical to produce anything dangerous. The chemicals and concentrations I have access to are; * Limewater (250 cm3) containing approximately 1g dm-3 of calcium hydroxide. * Hydrochloric acid (exactly 2.00 mol dm-3 concentration) * Distilled water (to dilute acid) * Phenolphthalein indicator solution In order to be safe in an experimental environment, I am going to use a list of safety equipments. ...read more.

Conclusion

10. First record the reading of the burette at eye level so that you don't misread when measuring. Then release the solution of HCl into the pink coloured limewater solution whilst observing the conical flask and gently swirling it. When the colour start to change halfway between pink and colourless, add the HCl drop by drop by doing this the end point could be reached and you will not be under it or overshoot it. Stop adding the HCl when the pink colour changes to become colourless and record the result from the burette. The white tile underneath the conical flask helps to give us a better view of the colour change. 11. By reading off the side of the burette what volume has been used will give you the volume of HCl acid required to neutralise the alkali. However the result is not accurate enough and anomalies do occur therefore the test must be carried out a further 3 times for any accurate results to become apparent or I can keep repeating the titration until successive titres are within about 0.1 cm3. Each time you make a reading you must be careful to note the starting volume of acid in the burette and the end volume making sure there are no parallax errors. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Determination of the Amounts of Sodium Hydroxide Solution and Sodium Carbonate in a Mixed ...

    Conclusion In method 1, the percentages by mass of NaOH and Na2CO3 are 39.15% and 60.85% respectively. In method 2, the percentages by mass of NaOH and Na2CO3 are 34.7% and 65.3% respectively. Discussion The results obtained from both experiments were not quite consistent.

  2. Preparation of Standard solution and Standardization of Hydrochloric acid

    The chemicals which show hygroscopic properties (e.g. concentrated sulphuric acid) will absorb any moisture in the air at anytime .This makes the calculation of molarity of that standard solution in the previous time become inaccurate and unpredictable as the molarity will change with the volume of moisture absorbed.

  1. Acid-Base Titrations.

    The plateau region of the titration curve shifts to higher pH values, and the magnitude of the pH break at the equivalence point therefore decreases, as the acid becomes weaker. We now consider the comparable case of the titration of a weak base with a strong acid.

  2. Drug: Antacid Effectiveness Analysis To determine the neutralizing ability of antacids in different ...

    the stomach cause constipation Insoluble and less readily absorbed produce CO2 gas in the stomach loses its effectiveness quickly produce CO2 gas in the stomach has an unpleasant taste. 5. What are the uses of the other ingredients in antacid?

  1. Acid-base titration. Objective To determine the concentration of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) using sodium ...

    Choice of indicator Methyl orange instead of phenolphthalein was used in the titration since H2SO4 is a strong acid whereas Na2CO3 is a weak alkali. An ideal indicator for a titration is one whose end point matches the equivalence point, which is the point at which equivalent amounts of the acid and alkali have reacted.

  2. How are standard solutions prepared & how is titration carried out in industry

    analyte, also a titrant is also injected is a series of steps, this is a reference cell set up with similar conditions that allows us to monitor the behaviour of the reaction which is taking place. The monitor screen will show some data at multiple stages of the reaction; this

  1. This investigation is an investigation to find the concentration of two unknown solutions, Na0H ...

    Doing this decreases the chance of missing the neutralisation stage and also increases the accuracy of the reading. When the solution in the conical flask becomes colourless, the tap should be closed and a reading from the burette taken and recorded in a table.

  2. We are aiming to accurately prepare a standard solution of 0.1 M (mol dm-3) ...

    Insert the stopper of the flask and invert the flask several times to mix the solution (see figure h) Safety Sodium carbonate is an irritant Wear goggles Adaptation to standard procedure: The first thing that we changed was point number 2; we put the weighing bottle on the scales, and zeroed the scales.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work