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Discuss the proposition that plant and animal cells are fundamentally alike

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Introduction

Discuss the proposition that plant and animal cells are fundamentally alike Plant and animal cells are fundamentally known by their scientific term as eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells, unlike prokaryotic cells are much larger and are 'structurally more complex.' These type of cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane containing organelles that surround a membrane-bound nucleus. Both plant and animal cells are common in that they have proper nuclei. The nucleus is known to be the largest organelle in a eukaryotic cell. They contain molecules of DNA, long polymers that code for the 'genetic specification' of an organism. These are in the form of chromosomes, of which they are separated by a nuclear envelope from the cytoplasm. The nucleus is also the site for 'DNA duplication', where the cell divides into two daughter cells in a process known as mitosis. Animal and plant cells also contain cytoplasm. ...read more.

Middle

The outer membrane is protective and provides resistance to movement of substances in and out of the cell. The inner membrane is highly folded to give a much greater surface area known as the cristae. It contains large protein molecules that are involved in cellular respiration. Within a mitochondrion is a region known as the mitochondrial matrix. The matrix contains proteins as well as some ribosomes and DNA that are used to produce proteins for respiration. Plant and animal cells also contain networks of tubules, flattened sacs and vesicles known as the endoplasmic reticulum or ER. There are two types of ER, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) which has ribosomes attached to its surface and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). RER is responsible for isolating newly synthesised proteins from the cytoplasm and transport them to different sites of the cell. Also to chemically modify proteins as to adjust their function within the cell. ...read more.

Conclusion

This fuses with a primary lysosome gradually forming a secondary lysosome where the process of digestion occurs. Peroxisomes are organelles that are also present in a eukaryotic cell. They break down toxic peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide found as by-products of chemical reactions. The ability to provide various types of cellular movement and support for plant and animal cells is an important role of the cytoskeleton. These are sets of long, thin fibres that also maintain the cell shape. Plant and animal cells depend on their cytoskeleton for separation of their organelles into the two daughter cells during cell division. All these important organelles are surrounded by a plasma membrane which separates the eukaryotic cell from its environment and because of its feature being partially permeable; it is responsible for the control of material that enters into and out of the cell. Given the importance of the organelles both present in the animal and plant cell, to name a few, are extremely necessary in order for chemical processes to take place in the body. Without these organelles, it would be exceptionally difficult to survive. ...read more.

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This report does not really discuss the notion of plant and animal cells being fundamentally alike but does give a good description of the structure of a eukaryotic cell.
The report would benefit from some analysis of cellular evolution and how both the animal and plant cell have evolved from a simple primitive prokaryotic cell, thus giving both cells the same basic molecular mechanisms to govern their lives, indicating that all present-day cells are descended from a single primordial ancestor.

Marked by teacher Jon Borrell 18/07/2013

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