Organelles in animal cells and bacteria cells

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  1. Bacteria Cells

Nucleoid: It is the region within a prokaryotic cell that most or all of the genetic material (primary DNA) is found. This is because the DNA could be present in more than one place within the cytoplasm due to having no nucleus with a membrane. The DNA is found in a circular shape as oppose to eukaryotic cells (which have a more string-like DNA).

Ribosomes: Although the shapes and sizes of prokaryotic ribosomes slightly differ from the eukaryotic ones; they have the same function within the cell, which is building protein by translating the code that is provided by the DNA with the help of tRNA and mRNA. They are composed of around the half of the amount of ribosomal RNA that construct eukaryotic ribosomes.

Cell Wall: The prokaryotic cell wall surrounds the cell membrane and protects it from external factors such as the change in water pressure. The bacterial cell wall is composed of a substance made of sugars and amino acids, named ‘peptidoglycan’. The layer of peptidoglycan in the cell wall differs from gram-positive bacteria (thick- multi layered) to gram-negative bacteria (thin- single layered).

Capsule: Not all bacteria cells possess a capsule. It is an additional layer and surrounds the cell wall. Its functions are; shielding and protecting the cell when engulfed by another organism, aiding in the maintenance of the moisture of the cell, and helping the cell to bind to surfaces and nutrients.

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Mesosome: These structures are formed by the infolding’s of the plasma membrane in prokaryotic cells which perform aerobic cellular respiration and they are distinctive structures from eukaryotic cells. The enzymes linked with respiration are placed within these folding’s and they perform cellular respiration.

Flagella: These are whip-like structures that aid the bacteria in cellular motion by detecting chemical signals and moving towards or retrieving from them, depending on its positive or negative nature. This process is called ‘run and tumble’; ‘run’ occurs as the cell detects a positive signal which may be received by a nutrient; ‘tumble’ occurs when ...

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