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Four organelles or structures that all eukaryotic cells have in common.Introduction.The cell as it has been known is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms.

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Biology Essay. Title. How electron configuration influence the chemical behavior of an atom. All substances consist of one or more elements. Each element consists of atoms, which is the smallest units of matter that still display the element's properties. Elements are actually a fundamental form of matter that has mass and takes up space. Although there are so many elements, only 90 of them are known to be naturally occurring elements on earth while the rest can be created artificially in laboratories. Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen are the most abundant ones in our bodies and in all living organisms. Others include phosphorus, sulfur, calcium and sodium. Each represents 0.01% of body weight. The atoms that make up each element are conserved in chemical behavior (chemical reaction) and they consist of protons, electrons and (except for hydrogen atom,) neutrons. All atoms have one or more protons which carry a positive electric charge (+). Electrons on the other hand carry a unit of negatively charged electricity (-). Neutrons have no net charge. The neutrons and protons make up an atom's core region while the electrons circle around the atom's orbit. ...read more.


According to the cell theory, all living organisms are made up of cells and all cells come from pre-existing cells. There are two basic types of cells; prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. The prokaryotic cells include bacteria. Although prokaryotic cells have DNA, they are not isolated from the rest of the cell inside a nucleus. (Prokaryotic cells do not have nucleus). Eukaryotic cells are cells that contain membrane-bound compartments in which specific metabolic activities take place. Eucharyotes include humans, animals, plants and fungi and a variety of other micro-organisms called protests. The protests include parasites. Eukaryotes, along with archaea-bacteria and eubacteria, make up the three major branches of living organisms. Euchariotic cells are usually distinguished from other forms of life by the presence of nucleus and the presence of a cytoskeleton. The most important compartments of a eukaryotic cell is the nucleus which houses the eukaryotic cell's DNA. DNA is genetic information which are organized into discrete chromosomes and contained within a membrane-bounded compartment. The nucleus from the pictures that I have seen is spherical in shape and separated from the cytoplasm by a double membrane structure called the nuclei envelope. ...read more.


Eukaryotic cell features that would be found in photosynthetic cells. Although all eukaryotic cells have a lot of common features, there are some features that are distinctive to photosynthetic cells. These features include cell walls, chloroplast and vacuole. However for the purpose of this assignment, I will describe only two these features. One of the cell features distinct only to photosynthetic cells is the chloroplast. Only the photosynthetic eukaryotic cells have chloroplasts. These organelles convert solar energy into a chemical energy (food) which is the process of photosynthesis. The chloroplast has oval-like shapes. It contains two outer membrane layers that enclose the semi fluid interior called the stroma. There is also an inner membrane, called the thylakoid membrane that is found in the stroma. This thylakoid membrane forms a single sac or compartment. The first process of photosynthesis occurs when many light-trapping pigments, enzymes and other proteins are embedded in the thylakoid membrane. It continues until ATP is formed. Another feature that is found only in photosynthetic cells is the central vacuole. The central vacuole is fluid-filled organelle that stores amino acids, sugars, ions and toxic wastes. It also helps the cell to grow. As fluid pressures build up inside the cell's central vacuoles, it forces its pliable wall to enlarge thereby increasing the rate at which water and other substances can be absorbed across the plasma membrane. ...read more.

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