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# Investigation to determine the viscosity of glycerol.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

 2007
 IMPACT OF TEMPERATURE ON VISCOSITY “Viscosity is the virtue by which a fluid offers resistance to the motion of a solid through it.”

This document reports on an experiment that examined the relationship between temperature and viscosity. The terminal velocity and up-thrust experienced by a sphere of fixed weight and radius was calculated by dropping it into a measuring cylinder filled with glycerol heated to different temperatures. Using Stokes Law viscosity corresponding to each temperature level was worked out. This generated a range of data points with viscosity corresponding to each temperature level. These data points were statistically analysed. The results corresponded to those indicated by theory i.e. temperature and viscosity are inversely related; as temperature increased viscosity decreased.

This report is in five sections. The first details the plan and the science on which the experiment is based. The second describes implementation while the third analyses the results. The fourth section evaluates the both the experiment and its results. The fifth concludes.

1. ### The Question

Is viscosity affected by temperature? When temperature increases does viscosity decrease or increase and if it does are the changes systematic or random? These are the questions I investigate in this experiment.

### Archimedes' principle

“A body immersed in a fluid (totally or partially) experiences an upthrust (i.e. an apparent loss of weight) which is equal to the weight of fluid displaced.” [1]Ships don’t sink in water because of upthrust. Upthrust is also the cause for weight loss when a body is partially or wholly immersed in a fluid.

### Viscosity

“Viscosity is the virtue by which a fluid offers a resistance to the motion through it of any solid body.”[2]

Middle

Therefore volume of water = volume of container = 47.91 cm3

Since I know the volume of the container, I need to find the mass of glycerol in the container for various temperatures and the use the above formulae to find the density of glycerol at various temperatures. The results obtained proved my hypothesis i.e. as temperature increases density decreases.

During my experiment I obtained the following results

 Temperature (⁰C) volume of container (cm3) mass of glycerol (g) Density (gcm-3) -10 47.91 60.8 1.2690 -9 47.91 60.75 1.2680 -8 47.91 60.70 1.2670 -5 47.91 60.61 1.2651 0 47.91 60.56 1.2640 9 47.91 60.46 1.2619 10 47.91 60.37 1.2601 15 47.91 60.32 1.2590 20 47.91 60.27 1.2580 25 47.91 60.08 1.2540 30 47.91 60.03 1.2530 35 47.91 59.94 1.2511 40 47.91 59.7 1.2461 45 47.91 59.6 1.2440 50 47.91 59.5 1.2419 55 47.91 59.22 1.2361

These results prove my hypothesis.

1. ### Density of Ball

To find the density of the ball we use the formulae:

From the above calculation we have already determined the mass and the volume of the ball. Therefore density of ball =

1. ### Upthrust

Upthrust is a force resisting the motion of the ball as it travels through the fluid. It is the weight of the liquid displaced. To measure the weight of the liquid (glycerol) displaced we use the formula

We have already calculated the density of glycerol at various temperatures. It is not possible to find the volume of glycerol displaced with the equipment at hand. But the volume of the ball bearing will be the same as the volume of liquid displaced.

Therefore

During my experiment the following were the various values for upthrust

 Temperature (⁰C) Density    (g cm-3) volume of ball (cm3) Upthrust (g cm s-2) -10 1.2690 0.11360 141.4322 -9 1.2680 0.11360 141.3159 -8 1.2670 0.11360 141.1996 -5 1.2651 0.11360 140.9902 0 1.2640 0.11360 140.8739 9 1.2619 0.11360 140.6413 10 1.2601 0.11360 140.4319 15 1.2590 0.11360 140.3156 20 1.2580 0.11360 140.1993 25 1.2540 0.11360 139.7573 30 1.2530 0.11360 139.6410 35 1.2511 0.11360 139.4317 40 1.2461 0.11360 138.8734 45 1.2440 0.11360 138.6408 50 1.2419 0.11360 138.4081 55 1.2361 0.11360 137.7568
1. ### Viscosity

In the planning section of this report I had said that

Weight of the ball bearing = viscous force + upthrust (when the ball is at terminal velocity)

So far I have found the weight of the ball bearing and upthrust. I now need to find the viscosity of glycerol at different temperatures.

Viscous force =

Weight of ball bearing = mg

Upthrust = weight of glycerol displaced.

Therefore:

Conclusion

1. ### Conclusion

In this document I have reported on an experiment that investigated the relationship between temperature and viscosity. In it I have:

1. Explained the term viscosity and its significance.
2. Shown how viscosity is affected by temperature.
3. Introduced stokes law and showed how viscosity can be calculated from terminal velocity, upthrust and weight.
4. Shown that the relationship between temperature and viscosity is exponential.

Page |

[1] Muncaster, R. (1993). A-Level Physics (4th ed.). Gloucestershire: Stanley Thornes.

[2] Muncaster, R. (1993). A-Level Physics (4th ed.). Gloucestershire: Stanley Thornes.

[3] Products, P. S. (n.d.). Glossary of terms. Retrieved April 26, 2007, from O-Rings and Seals Problem Solving Products, Inc.: http://www.pspglobal.com/glossary-h.html

[4] Authors interpretation from: Mittal, K. (2006). ISC Physics (5th ed.). Meerut: Nageen Prakashan.

[5] Wikipedia. (n.d.). Stokes Law. Retrieved February 16, 2007, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokes'_law

[6]Cornell. (n.d.). Laminar Flow. Retrieved March 26, 2007, from Cornell: http://www.utilities.cornell.edu/EIS/Glossary.htm

[7]

Princetonl. (n.d.). Turbulent Flow. Retrieved March 26, 2007, from Princeton:

http://wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

Figure 3:Physical Geology Lecture Outlines # 3. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2007, from http://www.geo.wvu.edu/~jtoro/geol101/streams/turbulent%20flow.jpg

[8] Wikipedia. (n.d.). Stokes Law. Retrieved February 16, 2007, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokes'_law

[9]Viscosity. (n.d.). Retrieved April 28, 2007, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosity

[10] Education, C. -E. (n.d.). Chemical Safety Data: Glycerol. Retrieved 2007 26, April, from Physical and Theoretical Chemistry - University of Oxford: http://ptcl.chem.ox.ac.uk/~hmc/hsci/chemicals/glycerol.html

[11] Inferred from: Summers, H. (1992, July 27). Dependence of viscosity on temperature. Retrieved April 14, 2007, from Radio, Electronics and Computing Projects: http://www.hanssummers.com/electronics/viscometer/exptemp.htm

[12]Glossary. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2007, from Accelerated Technology Laboratories: http://www.atlab.com/LIMS/glossaryp-t.html

[13]Glossary. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2007, from Accelerated Technology Laboratories: http://www.atlab.com/LIMS/glossaryp-t.html

[14] The Instrumentation Center - Metrology Services . (n.d.). Glossary of Terms. Retrieved March 25, 2007, from ticms: www.ticms.com/wizard/glossary.htm

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