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Investigation to determine the viscosity of glycerol.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

2007

  IMPACT OF TEMPERATURE ON VISCOSITY

        “Viscosity is the virtue by which a fluid offers resistance to the motion of a solid through it.”


This document reports on an experiment that examined the relationship between temperature and viscosity. The terminal velocity and up-thrust experienced by a sphere of fixed weight and radius was calculated by dropping it into a measuring cylinder filled with glycerol heated to different temperatures. Using Stokes Law viscosity corresponding to each temperature level was worked out. This generated a range of data points with viscosity corresponding to each temperature level. These data points were statistically analysed. The results corresponded to those indicated by theory i.e. temperature and viscosity are inversely related; as temperature increased viscosity decreased.  

This report is in five sections. The first details the plan and the science on which the experiment is based. The second describes implementation while the third analyses the results. The fourth section evaluates the both the experiment and its results. The fifth concludes.

1 Plan

  1. The Question

Is viscosity affected by temperature? When temperature increases does viscosity decrease or increase and if it does are the changes systematic or random? These are the questions I investigate in this experiment.

1.2 Key Concepts

Archimedes' principle

 “A body immersed in a fluid (totally or partially) experiences an upthrust (i.e. an apparent loss of weight) which is equal to the weight of fluid displaced.” [1]Ships don’t sink in water because of upthrust. Upthrust is also the cause for weight loss when a body is partially or wholly immersed in a fluid.

Viscosity

“Viscosity is the virtue by which a fluid offers a resistance to the motion through it of any solid body.”[2]

...read more.

Middle

image20.png

Therefore volume of water = volume of container = 47.91 cm3

Since I know the volume of the container, I need to find the mass of glycerol in the container for various temperatures and the use the above formulae to find the density of glycerol at various temperatures. The results obtained proved my hypothesis i.e. as temperature increases density decreases.

During my experiment I obtained the following results

Temperature (⁰C)

volume of container (cm3)

mass of glycerol (g)

Density

(gcm-3)

-10

47.91

60.8

1.2690

-9

47.91

60.75

1.2680

-8

47.91

60.70

1.2670

-5

47.91

60.61

1.2651

0

47.91

60.56

1.2640

9

47.91

60.46

1.2619

10

47.91

60.37

1.2601

15

47.91

60.32

1.2590

20

47.91

60.27

1.2580

25

47.91

60.08

1.2540

30

47.91

60.03

1.2530

35

47.91

59.94

1.2511

40

47.91

59.7

1.2461

45

47.91

59.6

1.2440

50

47.91

59.5

1.2419

55

47.91

59.22

1.2361

These results prove my hypothesis.

  1. Density of Ball

To find the density of the ball we use the formulae:

image21.png

From the above calculation we have already determined the mass and the volume of the ball. Therefore density of ball =
image22.png

  1. Upthrust

Upthrust is a force resisting the motion of the ball as it travels through the fluid. It is the weight of the liquid displaced. To measure the weight of the liquid (glycerol) displaced we use the formula

image23.png

We have already calculated the density of glycerol at various temperatures. It is not possible to find the volume of glycerol displaced with the equipment at hand. But the volume of the ball bearing will be the same as the volume of liquid displaced.

Therefore

image24.png

During my experiment the following were the various values for upthrust

Temperature (⁰C)

Density    (g cm-3)

volume of ball (cm3)

Upthrust (g cm s-2)

-10

1.2690

0.11360

141.4322

-9

1.2680

0.11360

141.3159

-8

1.2670

0.11360

141.1996

-5

1.2651

0.11360

140.9902

0

1.2640

0.11360

140.8739

9

1.2619

0.11360

140.6413

10

1.2601

0.11360

140.4319

15

1.2590

0.11360

140.3156

20

1.2580

0.11360

140.1993

25

1.2540

0.11360

139.7573

30

1.2530

0.11360

139.6410

35

1.2511

0.11360

139.4317

40

1.2461

0.11360

138.8734

45

1.2440

0.11360

138.6408

50

1.2419

0.11360

138.4081

55

1.2361

0.11360

137.7568

  1. Viscosity

In the planning section of this report I had said that  

Weight of the ball bearing = viscous force + upthrust (when the ball is at terminal velocity)

So far I have found the weight of the ball bearing and upthrust. I now need to find the viscosity of glycerol at different temperatures.

Viscous force = image25.pngimage25.png

Weight of ball bearing = mg

Upthrust = weight of glycerol displaced.

Therefore:image26.png

...read more.

Conclusion

  1. Conclusion

In this document I have reported on an experiment that investigated the relationship between temperature and viscosity. In it I have:

  1. Explained the term viscosity and its significance.
  2. Shown how viscosity is affected by temperature.
  3. Introduced stokes law and showed how viscosity can be calculated from terminal velocity, upthrust and weight.
  4. Shown that the relationship between temperature and viscosity is exponential.

Page |


[1] Muncaster, R. (1993). A-Level Physics (4th ed.). Gloucestershire: Stanley Thornes.

[2] Muncaster, R. (1993). A-Level Physics (4th ed.). Gloucestershire: Stanley Thornes.

[3] Products, P. S. (n.d.). Glossary of terms. Retrieved April 26, 2007, from O-Rings and Seals Problem Solving Products, Inc.: http://www.pspglobal.com/glossary-h.html

[4] Authors interpretation from: Mittal, K. (2006). ISC Physics (5th ed.). Meerut: Nageen Prakashan.

[5] Wikipedia. (n.d.). Stokes Law. Retrieved February 16, 2007, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokes'_law

[6]Cornell. (n.d.). Laminar Flow. Retrieved March 26, 2007, from Cornell: http://www.utilities.cornell.edu/EIS/Glossary.htm

[7]

Princetonl. (n.d.). Turbulent Flow. Retrieved March 26, 2007, from Princeton:

http://wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

Figure 3:Physical Geology Lecture Outlines # 3. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2007, from http://www.geo.wvu.edu/~jtoro/geol101/streams/turbulent%20flow.jpg

[8] Wikipedia. (n.d.). Stokes Law. Retrieved February 16, 2007, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokes'_law

[9]Viscosity. (n.d.). Retrieved April 28, 2007, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosity

[10] Education, C. -E. (n.d.). Chemical Safety Data: Glycerol. Retrieved 2007 26, April, from Physical and Theoretical Chemistry - University of Oxford: http://ptcl.chem.ox.ac.uk/~hmc/hsci/chemicals/glycerol.html

[11] Inferred from: Summers, H. (1992, July 27). Dependence of viscosity on temperature. Retrieved April 14, 2007, from Radio, Electronics and Computing Projects: http://www.hanssummers.com/electronics/viscometer/exptemp.htm

[12]Glossary. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2007, from Accelerated Technology Laboratories: http://www.atlab.com/LIMS/glossaryp-t.html

[13]Glossary. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2007, from Accelerated Technology Laboratories: http://www.atlab.com/LIMS/glossaryp-t.html

[14] The Instrumentation Center - Metrology Services . (n.d.). Glossary of Terms. Retrieved March 25, 2007, from ticms: www.ticms.com/wizard/glossary.htm

...read more.

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