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Investigation to determine the viscosity of glycerol.

Extracts from this essay...

Introduction

2007 IMPACT OF TEMPERATURE ON VISCOSITY "Viscosity is the virtue by which a fluid offers resistance to the motion of a solid through it." This document reports on an experiment that examined the relationship between temperature and viscosity. The terminal velocity and up-thrust experienced by a sphere of fixed weight and radius was calculated by dropping it into a measuring cylinder filled with glycerol heated to different temperatures. Using Stokes Law viscosity corresponding to each temperature level was worked out. This generated a range of data points with viscosity corresponding to each temperature level. These data points were statistically analysed. The results corresponded to those indicated by theory i.e. temperature and viscosity are inversely related; as temperature increased viscosity decreased. This report is in five sections. The first details the plan and the science on which the experiment is based. The second describes implementation while the third analyses the results. The fourth section evaluates the both the experiment and its results. The fifth concludes. 1 Plan 1.1 The Question Is viscosity affected by temperature? When temperature increases does viscosity decrease or increase and if it does are the changes systematic or random? These are the questions I investigate in this experiment. 1.2 Key Concepts Archimedes' principle "A body immersed in a fluid (totally or partially) experiences an upthrust (i.e. an apparent loss of weight) which is equal to the weight of fluid displaced." 1Ships don't sink in water because of upthrust. Upthrust is also the cause for weight loss when a body is partially or wholly immersed in a fluid. Viscosity "Viscosity is the virtue by which a fluid offers a resistance to the motion through it of any solid body."2 The theory of viscosity is almost identical to the theory of friction between two solids, just that viscosity is the term used for fluids. Viscosity is basically the resistance between the particles within a fluid.

Middle

5.67 5.78 5.02 5.49 3.64 10 20 4.95 4.92 4.83 4.9 4.08 15 20 4.49 4.56 4.27 4.44 4.50 20 20 2.47 2.34 2.55 2.45 8.16 25 20 1.99 1.86 1.93 1.93 10.36 30 20 0.85 0.86 0.73 0.81 24.69 35 20 0.69 0.65 0.61 0.65 30.77 40 20 0.52 0.58 0.47 0.52 38.46 45 20 0.47 0.44 0.41 0.44 45.45 50 20 0.38 0.35 0.33 0.35 57.14 55 20 0.25 0.28 0.3 0.28 71.43 REFER TO APPENDIX - C FOR VELOCITY AGAINST TEMPERATURE GRAPH 2.4 Density of glycerol To find the density of glycerol I used the specific gravity bottle. A specific gravity bottle is a transparent bottle with a lid on top. The lid on top of the specific gravity bottle has a small hole running through its centre. The use of the hole is to remove any excess glycerol contained inside the bottle. A lid without a hole would force the liquid inside the bottle thereby altering the pressure since the liquid has nowhere to go; this alters the true reading of the density; whereas the specific gravity bottle always has the same volume of liquid inside it. NOTE: All the readings for mass were taken by using the weighing scale. First I weighed the empty bottle. Weight of empty bottle = m1 I then weighed the bottle with water inside Weight of empty bottle + water = m2 I then calculated weight of water in bottle as m2 - m1 Since I know that the density of water is 1 gm/cm3 I calculated the volume of the bottle by using the formula During my experiment m1 = 24.67 g. During my experiment m2 = 72.58 g. During my experiment m2 - m1 = 47.91g. Therefore volume of water = volume of container = 47.91 cm3 Since I know the volume of the container, I need to find the mass of glycerol in the container for various temperatures and the use the above formulae to find the density of glycerol at various temperatures.

Conclusion

The value of correlation coefficient worked out from the results of my experiment yielded a value of -0.98. this signifies a very high negative relationship between x and y i.e. temperature and viscosity. 5 Conclusion In this document I have reported on an experiment that investigated the relationship between temperature and viscosity. In it I have: 1. Explained the term viscosity and its significance. 2. Shown how viscosity is affected by temperature. 3. Introduced stokes law and showed how viscosity can be calculated from terminal velocity, upthrust and weight. 4. Shown that the relationship between temperature and viscosity is exponential. 1 Muncaster, R. (1993). A-Level Physics (4th ed.). Gloucestershire: Stanley Thornes. 2 Muncaster, R. (1993). A-Level Physics (4th ed.). Gloucestershire: Stanley Thornes. 3 Products, P. S. (n.d.). Glossary of terms. Retrieved April 26, 2007, from O-Rings and Seals Problem Solving Products, Inc.: http://www.pspglobal.com/glossary-h.html 4 Authors interpretation from: Mittal, K. (2006). ISC Physics (5th ed.). Meerut: Nageen Prakashan. 5 Wikipedia. (n.d.). Stokes Law. Retrieved February 16, 2007, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokes'_law 6Cornell. (n.d.). Laminar Flow. Retrieved March 26, 2007, from Cornell: http://www.utilities.cornell.edu/EIS/Glossary.htm 7Princetonl. (n.d.). Turbulent Flow. Retrieved March 26, 2007, from Princeton: http:// wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn Figure 3:Physical Geology Lecture Outlines # 3. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2007, from http://www.geo.wvu.edu/~jtoro/geol101/streams/turbulent%20flow.jpg 8 Wikipedia. (n.d.). Stokes Law. Retrieved February 16, 2007, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokes'_law 9 Viscosity. (n.d.). Retrieved April 28, 2007, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosity 10 Education, C. -E. (n.d.). Chemical Safety Data: Glycerol. Retrieved 2007 26, April, from Physical and Theoretical Chemistry - University of Oxford: http://ptcl.chem.ox.ac.uk/~hmc/hsci/chemicals/glycerol.html 11 Inferred from: Summers, H. (1992, July 27). Dependence of viscosity on temperature. Retrieved April 14, 2007, from Radio, Electronics and Computing Projects: http://www.hanssummers.com/electronics/viscometer/exptemp.htm 12 Glossary. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2007, from Accelerated Technology Laboratories: http://www.atlab.com/LIMS/glossaryp-t.html 13Glossary. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2007, from Accelerated Technology Laboratories: http://www.atlab.com/LIMS/glossaryp-t.html 14 The Instrumentation Center - Metrology Services . (n.d.). Glossary of Terms. Retrieved March 25, 2007, from ticms: www.ticms.com/wizard/glossary.htm ?? ?? ?? ?? Page | 2

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