#### Physics of Rollercoasters

Rollercoaster Report Aim: To investigate changes in gravitational potential and kinetic energy and how these changes relate to the velocity of an object. Hypothesis: The velocity of an object will be greater when going down the hills of the rollercoaster and lower when going up the hills. The kinetic energy at the highest point on a hill will be lower than the kinetic energy at the lowest point. Equipment: * One ball bearing (28.57g) * Cardboard (used to construct rollercoaster) * Thick blue paper * Metre ruler * Tape * Pair of scissors * Steak knife * String * Camera (digital * Electric scales * Pencil Method: Creating the rollercoaster . Two pieces of cardboard were chosen. 2. The "hills" of the rollercoaster were drawn onto the two pieces (which would make the two sides of the rollercoaster) using a pencil. 3. The two pieces were cut using a knife and taped onto a cardboard base. 4. A piece of thick blue paper was measured and cut to be the ramp of the rollercoaster. 5. Tabs were cut into the paper to make it easier to attach it to the rollercoaster. 6. Ramp was stuck between the two pieces of cardboard using tape onto the rollercoaster. The experiment . Ball bearing was weighed using electric scales. 2. Height of the rollercoaster at 3 high and 3 low points were measured using string. 3. Total distance of the

• Word count: 1214
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### 'What effects the strength of an electromagnet?'

'What effects the strength of an electromagnet?' Introduction: An electric current flowing through a wire produces a magnetic field. Coiling the wire produces a stronger magnetic field. Coiling it around a soft iron core increases the strength effect; raising the current or the number of coils increases it further. I am going to investigate the raising of the current and how it affects an electromagnet. I think the electromagnet will produce a stronger magnetic filed and pick up more iron fillings. Aim: To investigate factors which affect the strength of the electromagnet and make the strongest electromagnet possible. Apparatus: · Iron Rod · Leads · Power Pack · Crocodile Clips · Insulated Wire · Iron Filings · Voltmeter · Plastic Beakers · Electronic Balance Hypothesis: I expect the strongest electromagnet to have a 'soft' iron core; the number of coils being (45) the current varies, the strongest amps being (7.00A) and have the coils evenly spread across the iron rod. The 'soft' iron core means it changes easily between being magnetised and de-magnetised, it is perfect for electromagnets, which need to be turned on and off. From a previous experiment, using an electromagnet, I found out that the iron rod picked up many filings when turned on and dropped them all when switched off but the steel rod picked few filings up when switched on, yet held

• Word count: 824
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### A Personal Experience.

A Personal Experience I awoke to the eerie sounds of the hospital at night and lay on the stiff bed, staring up at the blank ceiling, unable to slip into blissful sleep once again. The rigid smell of the hospital flooded my nostrils and brought back unwelcome memories as I strained to breathe. For a moment I wondered what I was doing here, and then the painful memories returned. I thought about what was to come and how my life would proceed considering what had happened. Would it change a great deal or would it return to normal once the procedures to repair the damage were complete? It all began just two days ago, Dad was at the top of our long field, weeding some unruly nettles and I was leading my horse, 'Fuse', up from the bottom of the field in order to take him to the weekly lesson we have together. I had only had Fuse a few months but in that time he had shown no temperamental problems. Little did I know that that was all to change... It was a fine summers evening, one of many we were having at the time, and I was just tidying up the field with the wheelbarrow before taking Emily and Fuse to their weekly riding lesson at the local stables I took hold of the Fuse, as usual and began to lead him up the field, a mundane journey both he and I had travelled numerous times before. He seemed unwilling at first, but this adolescent behaviour was far from unusual so I gave a

• Word count: 1527
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### paper cones investigation

Investigation Report Aim Theory When an object is dropped in air, it accelerates. If it is allowed to drop far enough then it can reach its terminal velocity. This is the maximum velocity of the object during its fall and occurs when the upward force of air resistance acting on the object equals the weight of the object. So at terminal velocity... (P.31, Complete Physics, 1999, Pople, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-914734-5) (P.33, Physics 1, 2000, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-78718-1) Looking for a formula for air resistance... F = force of air resistance ? = density of air = 1.2kgm-3 c = coefficient of drag for the object / dimensionless A = cross-sectional area of object hitting the air / m2 v = velocity of the object / ms-1 (http://damonrinard.com/aero/formulas.htm) Looking for a formula for the weight of an object... W = m.g W = weight / N m = mass / kg g = acceleration due to gravity, 9.81Nkg-1 (P.55, Physics, 1991, Robert Hutchings, Nelson, ISBN 0-17-438510-2) So putting these formulae together... From the Physics AS course, v = velocity x = displacement t = time so References to the specification Forces and Motion 2821 Forces, Fields and Energy 2824 Aim of your investigation The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between the time taken for a paper cone to fall and the mass of the cone. Variables

• Ranking:
• Word count: 2095
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### In this experiment, we investigated the relationship between the difference in work and mechanical advantage. Furthermore, we wanted to determine the difference between total work done lifting a 1kg mass up a height

The Relationship between Changes of Mechanical Advantage and Work Done Abstract (Moe Okubo) In this experiment, we investigated the relationship between the difference in work and mechanical advantage. Furthermore, we wanted to determine the difference between total work done lifting a 1kg mass up a height and dragging up a ramp as a function of mechanical advantage. We planned to change the height each times with pile-upped books and change the angles. Firstly, we measure the height of the books we piled up, the length. Then measure the angle of the ramp and we use a plank, and a spring balance to lift up and drag up the mass we repeat these steps for five times. In the result, when we changed height the work of lifting up the mass would not change but the work of dragging up the ramp would affect and we could see that when the angle of the ramp changed, work of dragging up would use more work. Also we could see that the mechanical advantage would affect too, it has getting less act when the angle of the ramp going bigger. Abstract (Eric Liu) Basically, in this lab we're going to determine the difference between total work done lifting a 1kg mass directly up a height h and dragging a 1kg mass up a ramp of length l as a function of mechanical advantage. How much easier and faster a machine makes your work is the mechanical advantage of that machine. In our experiment,

• Word count: 1532
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Find out what kind of effect the strength of an electromagnet has if the number of turns on the coil and the current going through the coil are increased.

Physics Investigation Electromagnets Aim My aim for this experiment is to find out what kind of effect the strength of an electromagnet has if the number of turns on the coil and the current going through the coil are increased. Background Electromagnetic induction is the idea that magnetism can travel from one object to another even though they are insulated. A greater number of coils in the solenoid around the core will increase the strength of the field produced by that electromagnet. This is because the amount of power given to the solenoid and core is increased so the core receives an increase in power, so the domains become aligned strongly, and more domains become aligned. In addition, with an increase in coils the coils cover a greater surface area of the core. This means the coil covers more domains and therefore more domains are influenced. Each turn has it's own field so more turns mean more fields. The greater amount of turns causes constructive interference, which increases the size and strength of the magnetic field. The type of wire also affects the strength of the electromagnet. If a wire is thicker then current can flow more easily and the current will increase so the strength of the electromagnet will increase. In addition, the length of wire may also affect the

• Word count: 1131
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Measuring The Constant g; The Acceleration Due To Gravity

AS Physics Investigation - Measuring The Constant 'g'; The Acceleration Due To Gravity Contents Abstract - Page 1 Introduction - Page 2 Equipment Listing - Pages 2-3 Preliminary Investigation - Pages 3-4 Final Methods - Pages 4-5 Results Tables & Statistical Analysis - Pages 5-7 Conclusions To Data - Page 7 Evaluation Of Experiment - Page 8 Abstract The gravitational field strength , also referred to as the 'acceleration due to gravity' (symbol 'g') is a crucial fundamental constant which affects the motion of all objects from within earth's gravitational field. For this investigation, I chose to measure this using suitable methods obtained from research into the calculation of 'g', and ultimately I had successfully done so to a substantial degree of accuracy, making it a success overall. The two main techniques which I used to measure this are as follows: ) Dropping a preferably large and dense object from various heights, and timing how long it takes to fall to the ground. The displacement 's' and time 't' are related to 'g' by this formula: s = 1/2gt( Which rearranges to: g = 2s/t( 2) This method involved timing the swings of a pendulum , with a solid mass suspended by a string of a given length. The period of a pendulum (the time for one back and forth oscillation) is given by: P = 2?v(L/g) Where 'L' is the length of the string. In order for me to

• Word count: 2691
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Induction motors

Induction motors Induction motors use electromagnetic induction to rotate a shaft or rotor and create mechanical energy from electric energy. With minimal design alterations an electric motor like this also has the ability to create electricity from mechanical energy, although these motors are referred to as generators. Electromagnetic induction is the production of an electrical potential difference (or Voltage) across a conductor situated in a changing magnetic field. Faradays Law states that electromotive force (EMF) produced along a closed path is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux through any surface bounded by that path. In practice, this means that an electrical current will flow in any closed conductor, when the magnetic flux through a surface bounded by the conductor changes. This applies whether the field itself changes in strength or the conductor is moved through it. (http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/e/el/electromagnetic_induction.htm) This rule governs the design of all induction motors, generators, transformers and most electrical devices. The most basic Induction motor is the Squirrel cage motor. Squirrel cage motors are the most common industrial AC motor, when running off a constant AC supply they are simply constant speed devices. They acquired there name from the rotors used which resemble a squirrel running cage. This

• Word count: 1161
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Force of friction

Kwun Tong Government Secondary School Advanced Level Physics (TAS) Experiment Report Experiment No.: 1 Title: Force of friction Date of Experiment: 2006/10/31 Mark: Sch. Code 2114 TAS Group 5 Name: Chan Man Lok Class: S.6C Class No.: 6 Objective: . To study the effects of the normal force, and surface area on the force of friction using a block. 2. To estimate the coefficients of static and kinetic friction. Apparatus: Instrument Description Wooden block x 4 200g x 4 Spring balance x 1 DCS/PL/2-2 0 - 10N The smallest division = 0.2 N Tripe beam balance x 1 0 - 500g The smallest division = 0.1g Frictional paper x 1 / Rubber band Several / Theory: Limiting static friction : Friction always opposes motion. Larger forces tending to produce the motion, larger friction is. However, it cannot increase indefinitely. For example, when a body is in contact with a rough surface frictional forces arise at the contact surface if the body is subjected to an applied force. When the applied force exceeds the limiting static friction , the body will start to slip over the rough surface. And the value of is roughly proportional to the normal force R. where is the coefficient of static friction at maximum at the contact surface. Kinetic friction : However, the friction acting on a resting block

• Word count: 1635
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### How can I work out the Young's Modulus of copper wire?

How can I work out the Young's Modulus of Copper? List of apparatus: Physics: Variables: Method: Safety: Risk How was this reduced? Wire snapping and injuring eyes Safety goggles were worn while undertaking the experiment Weights dropping and injuring feet Moved away from weights once plastic deformation took place, visibly obvious by the wire stretching and not stopping. Weights dropping and marking floor Carpet tile was placed underneath the weights, protecting the floor from being scratched. Sources of uncertainty: Source How can the experiment be improved to combat this? Measurement of total wire length (±0.24%) A tape measure could be used to measure the length of the wire, as it would allow me to be make measurements in more awkward places, such as up the side of the wooden block. Numerous measurements could be taken and then an average could be found to give the total wire length. Measurement of extension length (±11%) I could've placed the ruler closer to the marker, so that I was able to read off the measurements with less difficulty, an optical lever could also be used to make much more precise measurements. Once again, numerous measurements could be taken to give a more reliable result. Breaking of loop The loop breaking has a massive detrimental effect on the experiment, completely voiding its accuracy. Thickness of wire (±1.8%) Taking

• Word count: 1275
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science