• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The following investigation is to discover how much energy it takes to break the carbon and hydrogen bonds in Pentane, paraffin Hexane and Heptane.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Fuels investigation The following investigation is to discover how much energy it takes to break the carbon and hydrogen bonds in Pentane, paraffin Hexane and Heptane. Prediction I predict that the fuel with the most bonds will produce the most amount of energy. The scientific proof that I have behind this is that when bonds are broken and they reform energy is released so if there are more bonds then more energy can be released when they reform. Here are the theoretical values for the energy required to break these bonds. Heptane C7H16+ O2 7 CO2+8 H2O Bonds Broken Energy per bond (KJ Mol-1) Total bond Energy (KJ Mol-1) (C-C) 6 + 347 + 2082 (C-H) 16 + 413 + 6608 (O-O) 11 + 498.3 + 5481.3 Bonds Broken Energy per bond (KJ Mol-1) Total bond Energy (KJ Mol-1) (C=O) 14 - 805 - 11270 (O-H) 16 - 464 - 7427 Total energy required for bond breaking (KJ Mol-1) - 18697 Total energy required for bond breaking (KJ Mol-1) + 14117.3 Bond breaking requires energy to break the bonds therefore it is endothermic Bond making requires energy to make the bonds therefore it is exothermic This reaction ...read more.

Middle

C-H 413 12 4956 C-C 347 4 1388 O=O 498 8 3984 C=O 803 10 8030 H-O 464 12 5568 Total energy in 10328 total out 13598 Net energy change =155983+-3270KJ/mol Paraffin C10 H22+20CO2 +22H2O Type of Bond Bond energy Bonds broken Energy in KJ/mol Bonds made Energy out in KJ/mol C-H 413 44 18172 C-C 347 19 6593 O=O 498 31 15438 C=O 803 40 32120 H=O 464 44 20416 Total energy in 40203 Total out 52536 Total net energy change =40203-52536=-12333 Volume of substance used Starting temp Finishing temp Temperature change Amount of energy released Fuel used 50 292k 345k 53 - 11.08 KJ Mol-1 Hexane 50 292k 343k 51 - 10.66 KJ Mol-1 Heptane Moles of Heptane = 1.46/100 = 0.0146 this is 1/68th of a mole. Moles of Hexane = 1.43/86 = 0.0166 this is 1/60th of a mole. Conclusion My calculated values are well below that of the theoretical ones, this is party because of experimental errors that I will comment on later but the major factor was that the compounds did not combust completely, there was soot in the bottom of the conical flask therefore the alkenes when broken down did not ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation During this experiment no seriously hazardous materials were used so a minimum amount of safety equipment but what was used is listed in the equipment list. The procedure was seriously flawed as there was many ways for the heat energy to escape. There was nothing restricting wind therefore the flame was not concentrated on the centre of the conical flask which itself became covered in soot blocking some of the heat energy, due to the conical flask being made of glass this also absorbed some of the energy. Although we weighted the burners before and after the experiment the compounds evaporate very easily in air, which may have affected this weight as well as the five-second period in which the flame was still burning this would reduce the accuracy of the overall experiment. The easiest way to remove the limitations would be to use a sealed burner unfortunately we still have to use a spirit burner. There we two major anomalies in this experiment but both were due to human error more careful procedures would eliminate this, all in all with the improvements mentioned above and completing the experiment in standard conditions would the accuracy of these results would be greatly improved. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    To make sure we have plenty of energy in the future, it's up to ...

    4 star(s)

    About 30 percent of the world's wind-generated electricity are found in California. Other countries that use a lot of wind energy are Denmark and Germany. But once electricity is made, it has to get from the wind turbines to our homes, factories and schools.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    'An investigation into the ability of two strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ...

    4 star(s)

    yeast's ability to utilise fructose and sucrose as substrates was also determined. Due to the time-consuming nature of multiple titrations, it was decided that reducing the range of substrates for comparison was necessary, so that the experiment could be completed within the allotted time.

  1. the effect of bile concentration on the activity of the enzyme lipase during the ...

    Obtain a 100cm3 beaker and fill it with approximately 40cm3 of a pH buffer of pH 4 then take it to your working area and label it pH buffer 4 3. Refill the beaker labelled distilled water used in the dilution and fill it with approximately of 40cm3 then take it back to your working area 4.

  2. Energy absorbed by a bouncing ball.

    As I am going to be looking at the relationship between the fraction of energy absorbed by the ball and the initial height, I will be varying the initial height that the ball is to be dropped from. The size and mass of the ball will remain constant because I will only be using one ball.

  1. Weed study. Dandelions - descrption and characteristics. Investigation to dandelion distribution.

    Many botanists have researched the existence of the Dandelion and have made many theories on its living in nature. Gardeners and botanists have diverse opinions on the Dandelion. Some classifying it as a 'weed' and some consider it a benefit to their garden.

  2. Why the Body Needs Energy? Every living cell within the ...

    and are able to operate effectively; therefore this helps to maintain its optimum body temperature throughout the organism, and helps to control the pH of the blood and the body tissues, maintaining this within a range at which the cells can thrive, this also helps to maintain an ideal balance of electrolytes in the blood and tissues of the body.

  1. Bats investigation

    It can grow to have a six inch wingspan (15 cm) and a mass that can range from a tiny 5g to 22g for fully grown males. For the purposes of clarity in the rest of this report, it will be referred to as the Seba's bat 2.

  2. Comparing Physical Fitness Between Male and Female-Implementing the Investigation

    longer blow into the balloon in order to collect the carbon dioxide. 4. The balloon must be held tight to prevent loss of Carbon dioxide. 5. Place one end of a straw into the test tube 6. hold the balloon tightly around the other end in the test tube filled with methyl blue 7.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work