• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The use of protein digesting enzymes (proteases) in industry

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The use of protein digesting enzymes (proteases) in industry Proteases are enzymes that act on proteins and convert them to peptides and free amino acids. They play an important role in the food ingredients, beverage, detergent and leather industries. Depending on the application acid, neutral and alkaline proteases are available. [1] The digestive juices present in the duodenum (first part of the small intestine) contain proteases, protein-digesting enzymes which include both exopeptidases and endopeptidases. Aminopeptidase is an exopeptidase that acts on terminal peptide bonds at the amino end of a polypeptide chain. Endopeptidases such as trypsin catalyse the hydrolysis of internal peptide bonds. These enzymes may be very specific, acting on bonds linking two particular amino acids. [2] The degradation of protein macromolecules is catalysed by proteases. These enzymes have a significant and increasing application in many areas of medicine, for a wide range of purposes connected with removal or degradation of protein. [3] protein protease peptides and amino acids Proteases are added to meat to influence the tenderization of it, this is a long established practice. By far the most widely used enzymes is papain from the latex of papaya plant. ...read more.

Middle

In modern times, enzymes are supplied in bottle, but the application is still the same. [3] Protease enzymes have an important use in treating thrombosis, which is the blockage of blood vessels by fibrin-based clots, and is responsible for almost half of the deaths in developed countries such as Britain. [3] Twenty two and a half million people are estimated to be infected with HIV the virus that causes aids. Medical breakthroughs of more promising treatments the drugs called protease and hepatease block one of the enzymes essential to the reproduction of the HIV virus inside cells when combined with other drugs. The new medications have proved extremely effective at lowering virus levels. [5] Proteases make up about 40% of the total enzyme production. These protein digesting enzymes are the ones that 'digest even the stubbornest stains' during washing; their most common use is in detergents and washing powders. The proteases in the washing detergents effectively break down the polypeptide chains of the protein into soluble peptides and amino acid that can be removed in the wash. The particular enzymes normally used are bacterial proteases from organisms such as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus lichenifomis. ...read more.

Conclusion

.Low-cost nutrients and advanced monitoring have improved fermentation .technology. .New methods extract a greater proportion of the enzymes from cells. .Less time needs to be spent in purifying mixtures. .Industrial processes using enzymes are cleaner than chemical processes.[6] Disadvantages: There have been some big problems with the use of enzymes on a large scale. For instance, the allergic reactions among the workers involved in the process of adding powdered protease enzymes to washing powders, this problem was caused by the powdered enzyme coming into contact with the skin and/or being inhaled.( since then, special processing techniques have been introduced. Immobilised proteases are now added to detergents in particulate form, not as fine powders. Allergies are now much less common.) [6] A disadvantage in the use of protease for the chill-proofing stage in the brewery industry is that low levels of enzyme activity may remain after pasteurization, which is supposed to inactivate the enzyme. During long periods of storage, protein break down may continue and generate a sharp bitter taste. [3] References: 1. Internet _http://www.biocon.com/biocon_products_enzymes 2. Course textbook_ Advanced Biology (Michael Kent) 3. General text_ Enzymes in industries and medicine (Gordon F. Bickerstaff) 4. Journal_ Fungal Enzymes (2004) 5. Oxford Interactive Encyclopaedia 6. General text_ Microbes, Medicine and Biotechnology (Ken Mannion and Terry Hudson) 7. Internet_ http://www.isbu.ac.uk/biology/leather. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating respiration of maggots

    5 star(s)

    The size of this kinetic energy needed varies between reactions due to different bond enthalpies. An enzyme works by reducing the activation energy as shown in the diagram below. Energy Progress of Reaction As you can see, the enzyme lowers the activation energy, which gives a greater number of particles the minimum energy required for the reaction to occur.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    How does the concentration of enzymes affect the breakdown of starch by a-amylase in ...

    4 star(s)

    0.02g ?-amylase granules in 100cm� distilled water > 0% - no ?-amylase granules, just 100cm� distilled water These will be my six concentrations that I will use in my experiment. Safety: Avoid all contact of the concentration solutions of ?-amylase with skin or eyes.

  1. Applied Science

    The table below shows the normal range of pH values of certain body fluid . Body fluid pH Blood 7.35 to 7. 45 Saliva 5.4 to 7.5 Gastric juice 1.5 to 3.5 Bile 6 to 8.5 Urine 4.5 to 80 Blood has a pH value between 7.35 and 7. 45.

  2. The Application of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine.

    Some enzymes only work in the presence of a non-protein substance called a cofactor. A cofactor tightly bound into its enzyme is called a prosthetic group. They may be organic (carbon containing) or inorganic. Inorganic cofactors are named activators, they include metal atoms and may attach on to active sites to make its shape more efficient.

  1. Visit report - Bateman's Brewery

    The strain of yeast used by Bateman's Brewery is 'Saccharomyces cerevisiae', which is top fermenting yeast(2). This means that the yeast floats on top of the fermenting vessel as shown: http://www.stpats.com/yeast.htm The yeast floating on top provides protection from the air, and stops gases in the air from causing carbonylation of alcohol into acetic acid (vinegar)

  2. Aids and HIV.

    These are called "opportunistic infections" (OIs) because they take advantage of the body's weakened defences. You have heard it said that someone "died of AIDS." This is not entirely accurate, since it is the opportunistic infections that cause death. AIDS is the condition that lets them take hold.

  1. The Application of Enzymes in Industry and in Medicine

    the lock and key theory and it uses the concept of an "active site." At first it was thought that an enzyme's active site was merely a negative impression of substrate. This idea was called 'lock and key' because the substrate seems to fit into the active site as a key fits into a lock.

  2. Report on the Royal Military College Swindon

    As the X-Rays are reflected off successive layers of atoms, they undergo interference, and the film in the camera records a number of bright lines or areas of constructive interference. The distances between these lines give information on the crystal lattice of the crystals present, which then is used to

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work