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To find out how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of its reaction with limestone (calcium carbonate) chips.

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Introduction

Kimberley Beattie Chemistry coursework Aim- To find out how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of its reaction with limestone (calcium carbonate) chips. Prediction- I think that a higher concentration of acid will give a faster rate of reaction. I think that this is because the higher concentration has more particles and therefore there is a higher chance of a collision between the particles in the hydrochloric acid and the limestone chips, as the acid and the chips are reacting, gas is given off. If the reaction happens faster then more gas will be given off in less time. I also think that the reverse of this is also true. The lower concentration of acid has fewer particles and therefore a lower chance of successful collisions between the particles, which results in less gas being given off. Apparatus- For my experiment, I will need to use the following equipment- * Safety goggles, * Clamp, * Clamp stand, * Gas syringe, * Conical flask, * Bung, * Delivery tube, * Stop watch, * Measuring cylinder, * 50cm3 of hydrochloric acid (x15), * 1gram of limestone chips (x15), * Top pan balance. Diagram- Fair test- For my experiment, I have decided to use 50cm3 of hydrochloric acid. I think that this will be about the right amount. ...read more.

Middle

While I am doing this, my partner will start a stopwatch. After thirty seconds, I will take the reading that is on the gas syringe. I will do this every thirty seconds for two minutes. Once I have done this once, I will wash out all of my equipment and I will repeat my experiment at least once, if not twice again. This will make sure that my results are reliable. I will then continue to do this experiment for 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 molar acids. Results Concentration Time taken Amount of gas produced (Cm3) (Molar) (Seconds) Attempt 1 Attempt 2 Attempt 3 Average 0.1 30 0.5 0.5 1 0.6 60 0.5 0.5 1 0.6 90 0.5 0.5 1 0.6 120 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 30 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 60 1 0.5 0.5 0.6 90 1 0.5 0.5 0.6 120 1 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 30 3.5 2.5 4.5 3.5 60 4.5 4.5 5.5 4.7 90 6.5 5.5 7.5 6.5 120 7.5 7 9.5 8 1 30 8 7 6.5 7.2 60 13 12 13 12.7 90 18 17 20 18.3 120 24 23 27 24.7 2 30 9 8 5 7.3 60 21 19 16 18.7 90 35 32 23 30 120 49 46 40 45 Conclusion- From my results, I have found out that the concentration does affect the rate of reaction between the hydrochloric acid and the limestone chips. ...read more.

Conclusion

While I was carrying out my practical, I noticed that when the gas syringe was higher up the clamp stand, it seemed to collect more gas. This is because the gas is lighter than the air and so it tends to rise upwards. To get around this problem, I should have measured the height in which I place the gas syringe. If I was going to do this experiment again, I think that I might use some other concentrations of the hydrochloric acid. I would also try using some different types of acid, to see if my pattern also fitted with them. I would also carry out the experiment for a longer period of time and I would alter the amount of reactants that I used. I would do this to ensure that I had the right amount of reactants to last the whole experiment, but not so much that the syringe would get to its end before my experiment had finished. I think that I used a good procedure with doing my experiment, there were just a few things that I did not control as well as I should have controlled them. If I were to do the experiment again, I think that my experiments results would be more accurate. I would also test different gases and some different forms of calcium carbonate. This would give me more reliable results and would make them more accurate. ...read more.

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