• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To find out how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of its reaction with limestone (calcium carbonate) chips.

Extracts from this document...


Kimberley Beattie Chemistry coursework Aim- To find out how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of its reaction with limestone (calcium carbonate) chips. Prediction- I think that a higher concentration of acid will give a faster rate of reaction. I think that this is because the higher concentration has more particles and therefore there is a higher chance of a collision between the particles in the hydrochloric acid and the limestone chips, as the acid and the chips are reacting, gas is given off. If the reaction happens faster then more gas will be given off in less time. I also think that the reverse of this is also true. The lower concentration of acid has fewer particles and therefore a lower chance of successful collisions between the particles, which results in less gas being given off. Apparatus- For my experiment, I will need to use the following equipment- * Safety goggles, * Clamp, * Clamp stand, * Gas syringe, * Conical flask, * Bung, * Delivery tube, * Stop watch, * Measuring cylinder, * 50cm3 of hydrochloric acid (x15), * 1gram of limestone chips (x15), * Top pan balance. Diagram- Fair test- For my experiment, I have decided to use 50cm3 of hydrochloric acid. I think that this will be about the right amount. ...read more.


While I am doing this, my partner will start a stopwatch. After thirty seconds, I will take the reading that is on the gas syringe. I will do this every thirty seconds for two minutes. Once I have done this once, I will wash out all of my equipment and I will repeat my experiment at least once, if not twice again. This will make sure that my results are reliable. I will then continue to do this experiment for 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 molar acids. Results Concentration Time taken Amount of gas produced (Cm3) (Molar) (Seconds) Attempt 1 Attempt 2 Attempt 3 Average 0.1 30 0.5 0.5 1 0.6 60 0.5 0.5 1 0.6 90 0.5 0.5 1 0.6 120 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 30 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 60 1 0.5 0.5 0.6 90 1 0.5 0.5 0.6 120 1 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 30 3.5 2.5 4.5 3.5 60 4.5 4.5 5.5 4.7 90 6.5 5.5 7.5 6.5 120 7.5 7 9.5 8 1 30 8 7 6.5 7.2 60 13 12 13 12.7 90 18 17 20 18.3 120 24 23 27 24.7 2 30 9 8 5 7.3 60 21 19 16 18.7 90 35 32 23 30 120 49 46 40 45 Conclusion- From my results, I have found out that the concentration does affect the rate of reaction between the hydrochloric acid and the limestone chips. ...read more.


While I was carrying out my practical, I noticed that when the gas syringe was higher up the clamp stand, it seemed to collect more gas. This is because the gas is lighter than the air and so it tends to rise upwards. To get around this problem, I should have measured the height in which I place the gas syringe. If I was going to do this experiment again, I think that I might use some other concentrations of the hydrochloric acid. I would also try using some different types of acid, to see if my pattern also fitted with them. I would also carry out the experiment for a longer period of time and I would alter the amount of reactants that I used. I would do this to ensure that I had the right amount of reactants to last the whole experiment, but not so much that the syringe would get to its end before my experiment had finished. I think that I used a good procedure with doing my experiment, there were just a few things that I did not control as well as I should have controlled them. If I were to do the experiment again, I think that my experiments results would be more accurate. I would also test different gases and some different forms of calcium carbonate. This would give me more reliable results and would make them more accurate. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Enthalpy of formation of calcium carbonate

    4 star(s)

    Calculate the heat of formation of calcium carbonate. ?H?f [CaCO3(s) ] =?Hx +?H?f [CO2(g)] +?H?f [H2O(l) ] -?Hy =-423.698-393-286+29.080 =-1073.6 kJ mol-1 6. As far as you can, list out the major sources of inaccuracy in the experiment and suggest ways to improve them whenever possible.

  2. Reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid

    I will work up in a difference of 0.5 molar until 2 molar. I decided to stop at 2 molar, as I think I will be able to see quite clearly up to then whether the concentration of acid has an effect on the volume of Carbon Dioxide produced I

  1. The experiment is the mixing of hydrochloric acid and calcium hydroxide together and using ...

    * As explained before, I decided to use methyl orange for its low pH end scale of pH5-8, which will give a colour change at the appropriate phase of the reaction. * Repeats will be done to check precision, the results may not be 100% accurate but if concurrent, I

  2. The Determination of rate equation

    Take only as much chemical as you need. * Contact lenses should not be worn in the laboratory. * Dispose of all chemical waste properly. Never mix chemicals in sink drains. * Always work in a well-ventilated area. Safety in relation to chemicals Hydrochloric acid Contact with the eyes or skin can cause serious permanent damage therefore avoid contact by wearing gloves and avoid spillages.

  1. 'Investigating how changing concentration affects the rate of reaction between Marble chips and hydrochloric ...

    This is what I expected and this was my prediction, although there was a fault you can still see clearly that the experiment went quite well because everything seems in the right proportion. So therefore, it is correct to say that the higher the concentration of acid, there is a increasing gas produced.

  2. Investigating the rate of reaction between peroxydisulphate(VI) ions and iodide ions

    This is very important so as to prevent contamination 8. Pour the contents of the test tube into the boiling tube, and aim to do this in one quick action. Immediately as the entire contents of the test tube has entered the boiling tube, start the stop clock.

  1. detremining the rate equation

    Three burettes using the clamps ect. * Take note of the room temperature before starting the experiment. * Label all the reactants used and the test tubes including the volumes which are going to be used.

  2. Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

    This makes transition metal ions particularly good in redox reactions (such as the reaction between bromine and bromate ions in acid solution), as they can readily move from one oxidation state to another.viii 1.8 - The Arrhenius Equation The Arrhenius Equation gives an expression for the value of the rate constant k, as shown in Equation 1.8.1:ix (Equation 1.8.1)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work