• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To find out how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of its reaction with limestone (calcium carbonate) chips.

Extracts from this document...


Kimberley Beattie Chemistry coursework Aim- To find out how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of its reaction with limestone (calcium carbonate) chips. Prediction- I think that a higher concentration of acid will give a faster rate of reaction. I think that this is because the higher concentration has more particles and therefore there is a higher chance of a collision between the particles in the hydrochloric acid and the limestone chips, as the acid and the chips are reacting, gas is given off. If the reaction happens faster then more gas will be given off in less time. I also think that the reverse of this is also true. The lower concentration of acid has fewer particles and therefore a lower chance of successful collisions between the particles, which results in less gas being given off. Apparatus- For my experiment, I will need to use the following equipment- * Safety goggles, * Clamp, * Clamp stand, * Gas syringe, * Conical flask, * Bung, * Delivery tube, * Stop watch, * Measuring cylinder, * 50cm3 of hydrochloric acid (x15), * 1gram of limestone chips (x15), * Top pan balance. Diagram- Fair test- For my experiment, I have decided to use 50cm3 of hydrochloric acid. I think that this will be about the right amount. ...read more.


While I am doing this, my partner will start a stopwatch. After thirty seconds, I will take the reading that is on the gas syringe. I will do this every thirty seconds for two minutes. Once I have done this once, I will wash out all of my equipment and I will repeat my experiment at least once, if not twice again. This will make sure that my results are reliable. I will then continue to do this experiment for 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 molar acids. Results Concentration Time taken Amount of gas produced (Cm3) (Molar) (Seconds) Attempt 1 Attempt 2 Attempt 3 Average 0.1 30 0.5 0.5 1 0.6 60 0.5 0.5 1 0.6 90 0.5 0.5 1 0.6 120 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 30 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 60 1 0.5 0.5 0.6 90 1 0.5 0.5 0.6 120 1 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 30 3.5 2.5 4.5 3.5 60 4.5 4.5 5.5 4.7 90 6.5 5.5 7.5 6.5 120 7.5 7 9.5 8 1 30 8 7 6.5 7.2 60 13 12 13 12.7 90 18 17 20 18.3 120 24 23 27 24.7 2 30 9 8 5 7.3 60 21 19 16 18.7 90 35 32 23 30 120 49 46 40 45 Conclusion- From my results, I have found out that the concentration does affect the rate of reaction between the hydrochloric acid and the limestone chips. ...read more.


While I was carrying out my practical, I noticed that when the gas syringe was higher up the clamp stand, it seemed to collect more gas. This is because the gas is lighter than the air and so it tends to rise upwards. To get around this problem, I should have measured the height in which I place the gas syringe. If I was going to do this experiment again, I think that I might use some other concentrations of the hydrochloric acid. I would also try using some different types of acid, to see if my pattern also fitted with them. I would also carry out the experiment for a longer period of time and I would alter the amount of reactants that I used. I would do this to ensure that I had the right amount of reactants to last the whole experiment, but not so much that the syringe would get to its end before my experiment had finished. I think that I used a good procedure with doing my experiment, there were just a few things that I did not control as well as I should have controlled them. If I were to do the experiment again, I think that my experiments results would be more accurate. I would also test different gases and some different forms of calcium carbonate. This would give me more reliable results and would make them more accurate. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Enthalpy of formation of calcium carbonate

    4 star(s)

    Calculate the heat of formation of calcium carbonate. ?H?f [CaCO3(s) ] =?Hx +?H?f [CO2(g)] +?H?f [H2O(l) ] -?Hy =-423.698-393-286+29.080 =-1073.6 kJ mol-1 6. As far as you can, list out the major sources of inaccuracy in the experiment and suggest ways to improve them whenever possible.

  2. Investigating the rate of reaction between peroxydisulphate(VI) ions and iodide ions

    Temperature (K) T 1/T Initial rate (moldm-3s-1) k ln(k) 293 3.4130 x10-3 1.0424 x10-7 8.6867 x10-5 -9.3511 303 3.3003 x10-3 1.8325 x10-7 1.5271 x10-4 -8.7870 313 3.195 x10-3 2.8612 x10-7 2.3843 x10-4 -8.3414 323 3.0960 x10-3 5.2798 x10-7 4.3998 x10-4 -7.7288 333 3.0030 x10-3 8.1967 x10-7 6.8306 x10-4 -7.2889 343

  1. Investigating how concentration affects rate of reaction

    It has no effect on the rate of reaction. If this is the case, the reactant in question is excluded from the rate equation, as it has no bearing on it. In some reactions changing the concentration of a particular reactant has no effect on the rate.

  2. Investigating the rate of reaction between marble chips (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid.

    Reliability To make my experiment as reliable as possible I will do the experiments three times over so that I will have an expected trend. To make this experiment precise I will make sure that the pan balance's reading is measured to accuracy.

  1. Reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid

    I will work up in a difference of 0.5 molar until 2 molar. I decided to stop at 2 molar, as I think I will be able to see quite clearly up to then whether the concentration of acid has an effect on the volume of Carbon Dioxide produced I

  2. How do we make Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid react faster?

    The reason that I want the maximum amount of gas produced 100cm3 is because this is all my gas syringe can hold. Not all acid will reach the maximum limit of gas so the reading will be taken of the gas syringe when the reaction has stopped.

  1. The Determination of rate equation

    3 Graduated pipette (10cm3) - used to measure the amount of HCl, Na2S2O3 and distilled water; as it is more accurate than using measuring cylinder. 2 beakers - used to collect HCl and Na2S2O3 from the main source. 1 White tile - used to place underneath the HCl and Distilled water solution.

  2. Individual investigation - Reaction to be studied Rate of reaction between propanone and ...

    METHODS FOR EXPERIMENT 1: QUENCHING Equipments needed: * 1 x 10cm3 volumetric pipette and pipette filler * 2 x 25cm3 volumetric pipette and pipette filler * 4 Burette * 100cm3 measuring cylinder * 50cm3 volumetric pipette and pipette filler * 10 x 250cm3 conical flasks. * Propanone solution, 1.00moldm-3 (50cm3)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work