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Investigating the rate of reaction between marble chips (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

I am investigating the rate of reaction between marble chips (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid. To find out about this, I am going to keep all other variables constant except the concentration of the hydrochloric acid. The equation of this reaction is: CaCO3 + 2HCl � CaCl2 + Co2 + H2O Calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid � Calcium chloride+ Carbon dioxide + Water. I predict that the higher the concentration of the acid, the faster the rate of reaction is between the calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid, in other words, the rate of reaction is directly proportional to concentration of acid. My graph of results will probably look something like this: This prediction can be supported by the theory that acid concentration is the amount of acid particles in a given volume. A higher acid concentration means that there are more acid particles in a given volume. Given that there are more acid particles in that volume, there will be more acid particles to collide with a that volume of CaCO3; therefore there will be greater chances of successful collisions between the acid particles and the CaCO3 particles, which means an increased rate of reaction. So if the amount of acid is doubled the amount of collisions possible is also doubled as well. To investigate my idea, I will be using the following apparatus: Test tubes to measure the volume of the acid. Connical flasks for the reactions to take place in Marble chips (calcium carbonate) ...read more.

Middle

I am basing this on the fact that carbon dioxide is a heavy gas and so can be easily collected using a gas syringe. To control the temperature I am going to perform my experiments under a ceiling fan, this will ensure that any air particles that are heated up due to the course of my experiment will be removed from that area and will be replaced with cooler air. This will make the temperature of that area fairly constant so as not to interfere with my experiment. I also have to keep the weight of calcium carbonate that I will be using constant, because the more calcium carbonate there are, the more particles of calcium carbonate there are to collide with, therefore more carbon dioxide is produced, therefore a faster rate of reaction. To keep this variable constant, I will measure every amount of calcium carbonate I will be using on the top pan balance and make sure that they are of the same weight. I also have to make sure that the volume of acid is the same for all the experiments, even though there are different concentrations. This is because if I alter the volume any time during my experiment, it would mean that concentration would be inaccurate because concentration deals with the same volume. To keep the volume the same I have to measure the volume of hydrochloric acid I am going to use in a test tube and keep that volume constant through the experiments. ...read more.

Conclusion

Furthermore, I took an average of three results; therefore, there was less chance of an anomalous result. I believe that my investigation was valid because I ensured that the same apparatus was used through out all the experiments. I kept the temperature constant by doing all the experiments under a ceiling fan; I kept the weight of CaCO3 constant by weighing 0.5g of CaCO3 for each experiment to an accuracy of 0.02g; I kept the volume of acid constant by measuring its volume before each experiment to 15ml; I kept the time taken by each experiment constant by using a stopwatch; I made sure I changed to a fresh connical flask and test tube at the beginning of each experiment, I also made sure I changed the acid concentration of the hydrochloric acid to the appropriate one for each experiment. By keeping these factors constant throughout my investigation, it shows that my investigation is valid. I think the information I have collected is enough to support my final conclusion that the concentration of acid is directly proportional to the carbon dioxide collected, therefore, directly proportional to the rate of reaction. Also that the increase in carbon dioxide collected is not constant, so the rate of increase is not constant. If I were to repeat this experiment again, I would use a more accurate top pan balance for my experiment so that my results will be more accurate. To obtain more evidence to support my conclusion that the acid concentration is directly proportional to the rate of reaction, I would take the results five times and get the average result. This means that my investigation and my conclusion will be more reliable. ...read more.

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