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GCSE: Arthur Miller
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Examine the ideas of Manliness, Hostility and Aggression in A View From the Bridge. How are these ideas connected?
At the start of the play he is clearly respected in the local area, as demonstrated by Louis (Eddie's friend) when he says, "Eddie, you got a lotta credit comin' to you". This local respect is so essential to Eddie that he is willing to fight Marco, who he knows is far stronger than him, because "Marco's got my name" and "he's gonna give it back to me in front of this neighbourhood". To Eddie, the defence of his honour is a duty that cannot be shirked.
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How does Arthur Miller portray and link the themes of Manliness, Hostility and Aggression in 'A View From The Bridge'.
I am going to analyse two scenes from the play and look how the themes are portrayed and linked in each one. My two scenes which I shall analyse are (1) The scene where Eddie 'teaches' Rodolpho how to box, and (2) The three kisses at the beginning of Act II. I will look at how manliness, hostility and aggression are portrayed in each scene and the importance Miller gives to these themes. Eddie, the plays protagonist, has a very particular if stereotypical view on what it means to be a man.
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Examine the Ideas of Manliness, Hostility and Aggression in 'A View from the Bridge'. How Are These Ideas Connected?
This typical background of most men in this time era probably is a major factor that leads him to his ascetic views of being manly; he believes that the leader of the house should have control of other family members' actions. This is shown right at the start of the play by Miller, who clearly wanted to give the audience a view of the hierarchy table in the Carbone household; When Eddie and Catherine first begin conversation, Catherine has got a new dress and she rushes to Eddie to ask for his opinion.
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When Danforth asks, "Who is this man?" Paris butts in rather quickly, "Giles Corey, sir, and a more contentious-" but then Giles interrupts the question to answer the question himself, "I am asked the question, and I am old enough to answer it. My name is Corey, sir, Giles Corey." This set of interruptions clearly show the tension between Paris and Corey, but more so, shows how much Paris tries to sway the court with his own thoughts and opinions. But even if Giles manages to keep Paris from disrupting his defence against his wife he still has Judge Danforth.
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How does Miller explore the character of Eddie Carbone in 'A View From the Bridge'? Discuss, with close analysis of at least two scenes in the play.
In A View from the Bridge, Alfieri is the equivalent of the chorus, as well as his role as a lawyer in the play. He introduces the action to the audience. Alfieri mentions in the prologue of 'A View From the Bridge', that the play is 'a timeless tragedy'. The play stresses that it is dealing with timeless concerns. Alfieri also says that the audience are about to watch the play run trough its 'bloody course'. Alfieri stresses that Eddies problems cannot be remedied by American laws.
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Throughout A View from the Bridge, Arthur Miller creates and sustains dramatic tension to keep the audience's attention. He also uses dramatic tension to guide and provoke the audience's thoughts and responses towards A View from the Bridge
By Act II, all the problems of the play have been set out and it reaches a climax, and different characters take different actions to solve their personal problems. For example, Eddie reports to the Immigration Bureau. He only did this on account that Alfieri had told him no law would protect Catherine against Rodolfo, so he reports Rodolfo in order to "regain" Catherine. However, the audience knows this would just result in more conflict as Catherine and Rodolfo announce their plans to marry.
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Character Analysis John Proctor In a sense, the play, 'The Crucible', has the structure of a classical tragedy with John Proctor being the protagonist of the play and its tragic hero.
Such an admission would ruin his good name, and Proctor is, above all, a proud man who places great emphasis on his reputation. Proctor is quite a brave, honest and honorable man, confessing his sin of adultery to the court in a bid to stop the agitation present in Salem by tarnishing the now saintly name of Abigail Williams so that the townsfolk would stop listening to her false accusations. He eventually makes an attempt, through Mary Warren's testimony, to name Abigail as a fraud without revealing the crucial information.
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This group of people would be called 'the chorus'. Alfieri acts as the chorus in this play. He is slightly different to a normal chorus as he has an identity, an identity that blends a respected figure of two cultures; an American lawyer and an old Italian. Acting as the Greek chorus Alfieri is able to draw the audience's attention to the single line of the plot, which moves steadily towards the final tragedy, emphasising the inevitability of the 'denouement'.
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This creates a vivid mental picture and therefore invents the ideal environment for tragic goings on. Alfieri also utters an intriguing statement, 'now we settle for half'. This proclamation gives the impression that in this Italian community pride and justice is fierce and that no one will settle for half of what they believe is right. Alfieri makes this statement in the past tense leaving the question did the events that Alfieri witness determine whether people settle for half. He also wonders if there is another unfortunate lawyer sitting back, unable to do anything as the events, 'run their bloody course'.The indirect reference to blood creates another question about whether blood will be shed, considering the Italian community has a reputation to fight to the death.
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Discuss How the Characters Of Eddie, Beatrice and Catherine contribute to the dramatic effects of 'A View From The Bridge'
During the beginning of the play Catherine is heavily influenced by Eddies thoughts and feelings, as when he tells Catherine that she shouldn't take the job as a stenographer if he had not changed his mind then it is most probable that Catherine would not have taken the job. We also see the extent of Eddies influence over her when he tries to persuade her not to marry Rodolfo, as she begins to doubt Rodolpho's motives for marrying her, we see know this by the uncertainty in her voice, when Eddie tells her that 'he's only bowin' to his passport.'
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She can't marry you, can she? EDDIE [furiously] : What are you talkin' about, marry me! I don't know what the hell you're talkin' about! [Pause]" Here, Eddie is getting increasingly angry, because he feels that by marrying Catherine, Rudolpho is somehow stealing from him. Miller shows this by using expletives and exclamation marks. This shows that he is protective of her in a slightly more than paternal way. When Alfieri makes the comment about Eddie marrying Catherine, it is on the surface an offhand retort to ridicule Eddie's incredulity at Catherine marrying Rudolpho, but Eddie reacts very badly to it, because Alfieri has actually pinpointed the true nature of his feelings.
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looking to the village as one saving the world, he is looking at how the village should simply survive the hard times. Miller's statement suggests that the villagers working together and helping each other as one is the best way to survive and get through. He does also suggest though that this still holds no guarantee. Life for people in Salem in 1692 was very controlled, or that is how the 'rules' stated, and so how the villagers felt, hence the unrest.
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How Does Arthur Miller Present The Characters of Abigail and Elizabeth and Shape Our Responses To Them?
The intensity of the Christian religion of every inhabitant of Salem is shown by miller in the line 'I see no light of G-d in that man'. Yet, Miller has presented two of the main characters in his play as two extremely different women living in the constrained hierarchy which is the back bone of life in Salem. Arthur Miller has presented Abigail as an orphaned child living with her Uncle Parris who has recently been appointed the Reverend of the Church and his daughter of similar age to Abigail, Betty.
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Dramatic tension is created by Miller throughout the Crucible in many ways. Straightaway, the title of the play,
This lead to a constant atmosphere of suspicion; a "two man patrol" was sent out during times of worship to spy on and take the names of, those who were either lounging beside the meeting house or working in their fields. Miller uses this suspicious atmosphere of accusing people of witches in Salem as an allegory for the times of accusing people of being a communist spy in America in the 1950's. Miller describes the people of Salem as unreasonable, stubborn and ridiculously protective of their children.
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Create an outright contrast between the two protagonists - Abigail Williams and Elizabeth Proctor. Examine how he has established this dichotomy of character, and what does it add to the dramatic quality and audience involvement in the play.
Will he stay faithful to his wife and children? Will he be tempted and lured into Abigail's trap? Does he desire a young attractive girl or a plain mature woman? Abigail Williams and Elizabeth Proctor are two totally diverse characters. Abigail is strong, dominant, passionate and lives in a world of fantasy and lies. On the other hand Elizabeth is shy, hesitant, non-emotional and lives a life full of honesty not deceit like Abigail. It is ironic that the one lie Elizabeth ever tells in her life is the lie that condemns her husband John Proctor.
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In Act 3 of 'The Crucible' consider how Miller usesCharacter, language and dramatic devices to create tensionAnd explore the plays social and historical context.
In the opening of Act III Giles, an elderly but honest farmer is being held and forced into the vestry by Herrick, Hale enters and sees the aggravation that this is causing Giles and tells them both to be calm. "They'll be hanging' my wife!" Giles reveals that his wife is to be hanged; this signals tension that a argument is about to come in between some of the characters Giles's entrance creates elements of suspense and tension. We first see this when he breaks in roaring "I have evidence for the court".
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In this assignment I am going to investigate the dramatic Intensity of The Crucible's courtroom scene
tries to keep his reputation, but gives it up to reveal the truth. Through his struggle he achieves righteousness. All these things keep the plot moving. His character becomes stronger as his relationship with his wife matures. Along with honour and truth, I think witchcraft is also the basis of this play. The play takes place in Salem, Massachusetts during the 17th century. The setting is real, and because it's in the 17 century this is important because the community needed to be superstitious and gullible for this incident to take place. Also the event needed to be in a puritan society to have aversion and hate to witches.
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This leads us to think Proctor is a strong, steady character, 'but as we shall see, the steady manner he displays does not spring from an untroubled soul', this suggests Proctor is a troubled man, 'but no hint of this has appeared on the surface.' Before we even meet Proctor we aware of his insecurities. Miller probably did this so we don't just see him as strong, powerful, hard face man but look at him with an element of sympathy.
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Eddie Carbone is a 'forty year old, slightly overweight long shore man' who follows the Sicilian code. He is the typical presentation of a strong, powerful Sicilian male who is the head of the family but behind this persona lays psychological unrest that deeply disturbs Eddie leading to his demise at the end of the play. Eddie and his family are a poor Sicilian family living in Red Hook, the poorer side of Brooklyn Bridge. However, Eddie and his family still retain the self-respect, which is so important in the Sicilian Code. This is evident when their house is described as ' clean, sparse and homely'.
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Eddie's frustration is embodied in these lines, thus darkening the mood. Also, there are various flashbacks in the two Acts which mirror one another in different ways. The controlled hostility at the end of Act I (when Eddie shows Rudolfo how to box and Marco indirectly challenges Eddie) is developed into unpleasant tension at the beginning of Act II when Eddie kisses Catherine and Rudolfo. The final explosive violence at the end of the drama is justified when we consider what has gone before.
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Salem had changed dramatically. From being hard workers who would pull together as a community, to backstabbing individuals who would even note their neighbour's names down. Just to get them into trouble for being out of church. The witch-hunts began because people started becoming detached from their neighbours and friends, and started working by themselves. Although these were terrible times, some people took advantage of the situation and grabbed the opportunity to own up to their own sins in forms of confession. For example, people cried witch for a lot of reasons, such as land, revenge, or even just to get a guilty secret of their back.
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In the coming weeks, Rodolpho and Catherine spend a lot of time together and they are very attracted to each other, which worries Eddie. Eddie thinks Rodolpho is untrustworthy and Eddie become jealous of how much time he spends with Catherine. Eddie tells Catherine that Rodolpho just wants to marry her to become a citizen and get a passport "Katie, he's only bowin' to his passport", but she does not listen. Rodolpho develops a reputation at the docks for being quite a joker, which further embarrasses Eddie.
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He continues describing the neighborhood, where Sicilians now dwell. Eddie walks towards his apartment, as he enters he notices Catherine waving at him dressed in a new skirt and with a altered hair style. Eddie compliments her yet lectures her about her wavy walk which gains attention from the community boys. Eddie calls his wife, Beatrice and announces to her that her cousins have landed. They have been smuggled over on a ship from Italy and will be given seamen's papers to get off the ship with the crew.
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How does Miller handle the theme of Justice in 'The Crucible' and what message does he impart to his audience?
"this is a court of law. The law, based upon the Bible, and the Bible, writ by Almighty God," They consider God to be the most important thing. The Salem judges think that if someone is religious then they are good people. This is not always correct, one lady could not remember her prayers and they thought she was a bad person. The audience realizes that remembering something has nothing to do with whether they are good or bad. This is similar to the US in the 50's because they would have decided someone worthy of prison if they were
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How Does MillerUse the Climax of Act 1 To Create Tension for the Audience and Present the KeyThemes of the Play?
The use of Alferi's Monologue right at the beginning of the scene we are studying helps to create tension right from the very start. The line, "I could have finished the whole story that afternoon. It wasn't as though there was a mystery to solve" shows that he knows what is going to happen and that he does not think that there is any mystery in it and that it is a very definite ending.
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