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Aid and Development Report

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Introduction

Monday 20th November 2006 Aid and Development Report The Aswan Dam A major example of a top down project is the building of the Aswan Dam. It is built nearly 4 miles south from the old dam which is called the Low Dam. It took eleven years to build, from 1960 to 1971 and it cost $1 billion to make. The Soviet Union helped the Egyptian government to build the dam. The Aswan High Dam was built to control the flow of the River Nile. Before the dam was built, the river used to flood the surrounding land for 2 to 3 months each year, covering it in silt. This created fertile farmland across the desert. However, for the rest of the year, there wasn't enough water, and in some years the flooding was very severe, causing damage to villages. The Egyptian government built the Aswan Dam to ensure a reliable water supply throughout the year. A lot of the water was used to irrigation to help the farmers grow more crops; however, although the dam solved some problems, it created many new ones. Advantages The advantages of building this dam is that now, many more people in Egypt get plenty of fresh and clean drinking water which they get form the Lake Nasser. ...read more.

Middle

This is because some of the water leaks through the dam and the rest is then lost through evaporation. This is a large waste of water. Finally, a major problem is that the Nile delta is getting smaller and smaller. This is because the River Nile doesn't carry any sediment and pebbles downstream from the dam. The pebbles and sediment get stuck behind the dam. Wildlife is losing its home around the delta because the delta is shrinking in size and the wildlife animals are losing their homes. UNICEF An example of a bottom up organisation is UNICEF. The project I am going to be reporting on is what UNICEF has done on the school sanitation and hygiene in Malawi. To carry out this project, it had cost �1.45 million. The purpose of this UNICEF project in Malawi is to develop and institute national standards for sanitation facilities and hygiene promotion in primary schools. These standards are then expected to lay the groundwork for other approaches that can then be applied more extensively. According to the Health Survey, only one out of 10 households in Malawi had an improved latrine or flush toilet. In many of the schools surveyed during the 2001 national sanitation review, the ratio was more than 100 children to one latrine. ...read more.

Conclusion

The local people weren't really involved in the decision making of the dam, nor were they involved in anything to do with the dam. I think that the top down development was more unfair with the way they built the dam because many local people were made to move out of their houses and leave to go to another place. I think this is very unfair because whether they wanted the dam or not, they HAD to move out! However, despite this, the project was very successful. The project in Malawi was more easily going and the local people were involved in what was going on. The way UNICEF went about was much more fair and nicely. They didn't chuck anyone of their houses to build a very large scale, modern object, they just built normal toilets!!! Also, I think that UNICEF was very good because they taught the local people about the importance of hygiene and clean latrines. Therefore, people would understand why they are building them and appreciate the fact that they will have a toilet. Overall, I think the building of the Aswan High Dam was better than the building of latrine in Malawi because although it had quite a few down sides, it improved the lives of the people living in Egypt significantly by providing them safe drinking water. Thousands of people are dieing due to lack of clean water, and this dam has helped to overcome the problem. ...read more.

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