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Geography Coursework- Coasts

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Introduction

There are many group of features shaped by erosion are headlands and bays. Headlands are formed when the sea attacks a section of coast consisting of alternating bands of hard and soft rock. Headland and bay: Myrtos Bay, Kefalonia The bands of soft rock, such as sand and clay, erode more quickly than those of more resistant hard rock, such as chalk. This leaves a section of land jutting out into the sea; this is called a headland. The areas where the soft rock has eroded away, next to the headland, are called bays. Coasts where the geology alternates between strata (or bands) of hard rocks and soft rocks is called a discordant coastline. Discordant coastlines will have alternating headlands and bays. Concordant coastline is where the rock remains the same along the coastline. Concordant coastlines tend to have less bays and headlands. Wave cut platform at Southerndown, South Wales The formation of a wave cut platform A wave-cut platform, marine terrace, or shore platform is the narrow flat area often seen at the base of a sea cliff caused by the action of the waves.

Middle

* Caves occur when the waves force their way into cracks in the cliff face. The water contains sand and other materials that help to grind away at the rock until the cracks become a cave. * If the cave is formed in a headland, it may eventually break through forming an arch. * The arch will gradually become bigger and bigger until it can no longer support the top of the arch. When the arch collapses, it leaves the headland on one side and a stack (a tall column of rock) on the other. Spits are created through the process of deposition. A spit is an extended stretch of beach material that projects out to sea and is joined to the mainland at one end. Spits are commonly formed where there is a prevailing wind and where there is a longshore drift. An example of a spit is Spurn Head, found along the Holderness Coast in Humberside. The development of a spit is shown below: Groyne on the East coast of England Groynes in the Waal river, part of the Rhine in the

Conclusion

Coastal management or coastal defense is used to throughout the world for many different purposes, but predominantly to reduce coastal erosion and flooding. There are many techniques of coastal management including "hard" and "soft" construction and planning approaches. Hard construction is the more traditional response to erosion and involves the construction of structures which stop wave energy reaching the shore, or absorb and reflect the energy. These have often caused problems themselves, such as increasing erosion elsewhere, and soft construction techniques have become more popular because of this. These techniques involve promoting natural systems such as beaches and salt marshes which protect the coast, and are usually cheaper to construct and maintain than hard construction techniques, and may be self-sustaining. In some jurisdictions the terms sea defence and coastal protection are used to mean, respectively, defence against flooding and erosion. The term coastal defence is the more traditional term, but coastal management has become more popular as the field has expanded to include techniques that allow erosion to claim land. ?? ?? ?? ?? Geography Coursework- Coasts Tejbir Singh Page 1

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