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Overstrand report

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

In the past few years, Overstrand has been eroded, and people's lives, houses, schools, hotels, farmlands and the rest of the town is at risk. So we need to protect the coast from the waves, eroding the area. Action should be taken as soon as possible. Overstrand is in Norfolk close to Norwich. It is situated on the coastline, where the waves are causing lots of problems. (On the right is an image of where Overstrand is located.) Overstrand is made out of soft clay. If it was made out of hard rock or something on the lines of that, Overstrand would not have been eroded as quickly as the land has now. Overstrand has been eroded mostly by long shore drift, because the energy from the waves rushes on to the beach in the directions the wind is blowing. The waves then hit the cliff and come back down in to the sea with bits of sand and pebbles. The reason why the waves came back down in to the sea is because of gravity. This happens along the beach when it comes to a curve. Over the years the waves wash the beach away. When the beach has been washed away, the waves then start hitting the cliffs. Later on a crack will be formed, then a notch, a cave and next an arch. After the arch has been formed, it falls down in to the sea, this is called a stack. The stack will then topple over in the sea and a stump is produced. ...read more.

Middle

It also takes too long for the sea wall to be built. Modern sea walls have a slope and curved top which breaks up the energy of the wave and prevents water going over the top of the wall during heavy storms. Sea walls are very expensive (�2000-�5000 per metre) but should last 20-30 years. Advantages and disadvantages for Concrete or Wooden Revetment A cheaper alternative to sea walls is the revetment (about �2000 per metre). This is a sloping feature which breaks up or absorbs the energy of the waves but may let water and sediment pass through. Concrete or wooden revetment is not as good as the Sea Wall. It is not as expensive as the sea wall. It protects the beach and also it protects the cliff from eroding. If it is made out of wood then it would rot quite quickly. Also a few years later the concrete of wooden or wood revetment will need replacing because it would have got a few cracks on it. Concrete or wooden revetment is not one of the effective sea defences, and if tourists want to swim in the sea, they have to go down a couple of steps to the sea. It is not bad looking as the sea wall; however it is equally not nice to see. Concrete Revetment Systems provide benefits of ease of installation, and lower cost when compared to other options. Advantages and Disadvantages for Groynes Groynes are wooden or stone 'arms' sticking out into the sea. ...read more.

Conclusion

Gabion �100 per m Cheap. Strong and flexible, but rust easily, and not environmentally friendly. Conclusion FACTORS TO CONSIDER 1. Cost of the scheme and up keep costs 2. Benefits of the scheme e.g. homes, farmland, roads and lives 3. How effective is the scheme? 4. What effect will it have on other areas? 5. What will it look like? As I am looking for a long term solution, In order to protect Overstrand I am going to use the following sea defenses, groynes and concrete revetment. Even though the concrete revetment may need replacing; it is still a pretty good sea defense. Also I chose groynes because tourists do not need to go down any stairs to the sea. These are more able to resist storm waves. The sea defenses are going to be placed in different areas. Between Overstrand and Trimingham, which is all farmland groynes and concrete revetment is going to be placed there. Also between Overstrand and Cromer, concrete revetment and groynes is going to be placed. This is going to protect Overstrand and the farmland. Overall, the coast line is going to be protected with groynes and concrete revetment. The total cost for the two sea defenses will be �9,735,000. I am using groynes and concrete revetment instead of the other sea defenses because, if I used concrete revetment and gabions they will not be good at protecting the cliffs as they are poor sea defenses, even through they are so cheap. So overall I have chosen two pretty good sea defenses. As I am protecting the whole coastline, there will not be any knock on effects happening in other places. ...read more.

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