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Transport problems - Pricing Road use for Greater Responsibility, Efficiency and Sustainability in cities. Progross is a research and demonstration project into road user charging in cities, supported by the European Commission

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Introduction

Transport Problems Progress Pricing Road use for Greater Responsibility, Efficiency and Sustainability in cities. Progross is a research and demonstration project into road user charging in cities, supported by the European Commission Rome (Italy): Rome, the capital of Italy, covers an area of 1,290 Km� and is located in the region of Lazio, on the west coast of the North-South centre of the country. The metropolitan area of Rome, instituted by law 142/90 covers 5,352 km� and 3,981,000 inhabitants. Rome's main activities, as country capital, are in the administrative, political and service sectors. Also the tourist sector, including transport, hotels and others, is an important asset of the City entrances: these economic activities are generally concentrated in the geometric centre of Rome, especially in the historic part. In spite of this concentration of activities, a sufficiently developed radial system of connection and services has not been developed. In fact, the public transport system handles only 40 per cent of the total trips while 60 per cent of trips are made by private transport. This mode split is further characterised by a large number of private vehicles (about 1,800,000) despite the general lack of parking spaces. This dominance of the private car is particularly difficult to manage given the urban fabric of Rome, which was not designed to accommodate cars with roads narrow, uneven, and not forming a grid pattern. Notwithstanding, through the development of sustainable mobility policies and the use of ITS systems (Traffic Control Room display in the picture), the City Administration is trying to reduce congestion, the impact of air pollution, long trip times and high transportation costs. Rome's activities in PRoGR�SS The demonstration site was already selected, either in terms of the pricing zone or for the necessary technological installations (entrance gates). The access control system comprises 24 electronic gates able to effectuate, without user intervention, the identification and/or the applicable tariff for vehicle entrance into the restricted area. ...read more.

Middle

This comprises 395,218 cars, 131,937 motorcycles and scooters, 134,756 goods and other vehicles, 18,327 taxis and 12,569 buses. Electronic Road Pricing The Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) system, which came into operation in 1998, replaced the coupon-based Area Licensing Scheme (ALS) and the Road Pricing Scheme (RPS) as Singapore's main traffic management tool. The ERP system charges motorists every time they drive past an ERP gantry during operational hours. Charges are deducted from a stored-value Smartcard inserted into the in-vehicle unit (IU) in the car following radio communication between the IU and the ERP gantry. The ERP system is flexible as charges depend on location, vehicle type and the time of day. The charges are set higher during busy periods and lower during lull periods. Vehicles which take up more space and thus contribute more to traffic congestion can also be charged higher rates. The ERP system is operational at 28 gantries in the Restricted Zone, 11 gantries at expressways, and three gantries at the outer ring roads. The ERP operational hours are from Mondays to Fridays 7.30am to 7.00pm at the Restricted Zone, and from Mondays to Fridays 7.30am to 9.30am on the expressways and outer ring roads. Bus Services There are three companies, namely Singapore Bus Service (SBS), Trans-Island Bus Services (TIBS) and Singapore Shuttle Services (SSS) that provide full-day scheduled bus services. There are 268 services and a fleet of 3,633 buses. For faster service, seven express services with 83 buses ply the roads regularly. In addition, a 'Bus Plus' scheme provides upmarket minibus services during peak hours on weekdays. In 2000, 32 buses plying seven routes operated under this scheme. There are also special Night buses for commuters who travel after normal service ends at midnight. Taxi Service There are four groups of taxi operators, namely, Comfort Transportation (recognised by their light blue cabs), CityCab (yellow), TIBS (beige) and Yellow-Top (black and yellow top), operating a total fleet of 18,327 taxis at the end of 2000. ...read more.

Conclusion

scheme * All captured images are streamed back in analogue to the ANPR system which produces a data block showing the exact time and date that the images were taken. Images from the colour camera and the mono camera, as well as the information from the ANPR reader are then stored as back-up in case the information needs to be compared * All images are then automatically matched against a database of those people who have registered to pay. The details of those who have done so are discarded * For those who have not paid the charge, all images are sent to the WORM drive ('write once read many'). Each image is encrypted and digitally signed at the first point of capture to prevent any modification to the original image. This is to ensure a complete evidence trail in the event of any disputed penalty charges * Images of number plates, belonging to those who have not paid to register by midnight on the same day are manually checked against DVLA databases for a penalty notice to be issued Enforcement * A civil penalty system, like that for de-criminalised parking, operates * Unpaid penalties are pursued through civil courts, with ultimate recourse to bailiffs if no payment is made * Attempts to tamper with number plates or vandalise/deface signs or camera equipment are criminal offences * A tamper-proof record of images is kept until penalties are paid, or the case closed. Transport for London (TfL) has powers to clamp or remove persistent evaders anywhere in Greater London - not just within the charging zone * Foreign vehicles are also monitored and checks made through links between TfL and similar agencies in other countries * Drivers of hired vehicles will be liable to pay and hire companies will be entitled to pass on driver details * CCTV monitoring is fully compliant with the Data Protection Act. Only in circumstances where number plates do not match database records, will images be retained for enforcement purposes ...read more.

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