• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Transport problems - Pricing Road use for Greater Responsibility, Efficiency and Sustainability in cities. Progross is a research and demonstration project into road user charging in cities, supported by the European Commission

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Transport Problems Progress Pricing Road use for Greater Responsibility, Efficiency and Sustainability in cities. Progross is a research and demonstration project into road user charging in cities, supported by the European Commission Rome (Italy): Rome, the capital of Italy, covers an area of 1,290 Km� and is located in the region of Lazio, on the west coast of the North-South centre of the country. The metropolitan area of Rome, instituted by law 142/90 covers 5,352 km� and 3,981,000 inhabitants. Rome's main activities, as country capital, are in the administrative, political and service sectors. Also the tourist sector, including transport, hotels and others, is an important asset of the City entrances: these economic activities are generally concentrated in the geometric centre of Rome, especially in the historic part. In spite of this concentration of activities, a sufficiently developed radial system of connection and services has not been developed. In fact, the public transport system handles only 40 per cent of the total trips while 60 per cent of trips are made by private transport. This mode split is further characterised by a large number of private vehicles (about 1,800,000) despite the general lack of parking spaces. This dominance of the private car is particularly difficult to manage given the urban fabric of Rome, which was not designed to accommodate cars with roads narrow, uneven, and not forming a grid pattern. Notwithstanding, through the development of sustainable mobility policies and the use of ITS systems (Traffic Control Room display in the picture), the City Administration is trying to reduce congestion, the impact of air pollution, long trip times and high transportation costs. Rome's activities in PRoGR�SS The demonstration site was already selected, either in terms of the pricing zone or for the necessary technological installations (entrance gates). The access control system comprises 24 electronic gates able to effectuate, without user intervention, the identification and/or the applicable tariff for vehicle entrance into the restricted area. ...read more.

Middle

This comprises 395,218 cars, 131,937 motorcycles and scooters, 134,756 goods and other vehicles, 18,327 taxis and 12,569 buses. Electronic Road Pricing The Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) system, which came into operation in 1998, replaced the coupon-based Area Licensing Scheme (ALS) and the Road Pricing Scheme (RPS) as Singapore's main traffic management tool. The ERP system charges motorists every time they drive past an ERP gantry during operational hours. Charges are deducted from a stored-value Smartcard inserted into the in-vehicle unit (IU) in the car following radio communication between the IU and the ERP gantry. The ERP system is flexible as charges depend on location, vehicle type and the time of day. The charges are set higher during busy periods and lower during lull periods. Vehicles which take up more space and thus contribute more to traffic congestion can also be charged higher rates. The ERP system is operational at 28 gantries in the Restricted Zone, 11 gantries at expressways, and three gantries at the outer ring roads. The ERP operational hours are from Mondays to Fridays 7.30am to 7.00pm at the Restricted Zone, and from Mondays to Fridays 7.30am to 9.30am on the expressways and outer ring roads. Bus Services There are three companies, namely Singapore Bus Service (SBS), Trans-Island Bus Services (TIBS) and Singapore Shuttle Services (SSS) that provide full-day scheduled bus services. There are 268 services and a fleet of 3,633 buses. For faster service, seven express services with 83 buses ply the roads regularly. In addition, a 'Bus Plus' scheme provides upmarket minibus services during peak hours on weekdays. In 2000, 32 buses plying seven routes operated under this scheme. There are also special Night buses for commuters who travel after normal service ends at midnight. Taxi Service There are four groups of taxi operators, namely, Comfort Transportation (recognised by their light blue cabs), CityCab (yellow), TIBS (beige) and Yellow-Top (black and yellow top), operating a total fleet of 18,327 taxis at the end of 2000. ...read more.

Conclusion

scheme * All captured images are streamed back in analogue to the ANPR system which produces a data block showing the exact time and date that the images were taken. Images from the colour camera and the mono camera, as well as the information from the ANPR reader are then stored as back-up in case the information needs to be compared * All images are then automatically matched against a database of those people who have registered to pay. The details of those who have done so are discarded * For those who have not paid the charge, all images are sent to the WORM drive ('write once read many'). Each image is encrypted and digitally signed at the first point of capture to prevent any modification to the original image. This is to ensure a complete evidence trail in the event of any disputed penalty charges * Images of number plates, belonging to those who have not paid to register by midnight on the same day are manually checked against DVLA databases for a penalty notice to be issued Enforcement * A civil penalty system, like that for de-criminalised parking, operates * Unpaid penalties are pursued through civil courts, with ultimate recourse to bailiffs if no payment is made * Attempts to tamper with number plates or vandalise/deface signs or camera equipment are criminal offences * A tamper-proof record of images is kept until penalties are paid, or the case closed. Transport for London (TfL) has powers to clamp or remove persistent evaders anywhere in Greater London - not just within the charging zone * Foreign vehicles are also monitored and checks made through links between TfL and similar agencies in other countries * Drivers of hired vehicles will be liable to pay and hire companies will be entitled to pass on driver details * CCTV monitoring is fully compliant with the Data Protection Act. Only in circumstances where number plates do not match database records, will images be retained for enforcement purposes ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Human Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Human Geography essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Land Use Change In Northampton!

    5 star(s)

    Shops like HMV and Virgin Megastore tend to be concentrated in the very centre of the town, in Northampton's case, in the Grosvenor Centre. This is mainly due to the fact that these record shops rely heavily on the passing market of people in the Grosvenor Centre.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Case study: Londons congestion charging scheme-a case study of urban congestion management

    3 star(s)

    How are cars monitored? The scheme is monitored by cameras on roads across the congestion charge zone, which read car number plates and cross-references them against a register of cars that have paid the charge. The organisation responsible for the charge is Transport for London (TfL); Capita Group operates the scheme under contract.

  1. Discuss the problems of the Central Business Districts of MEDC cities. Suggest solutions to ...

    The other thing that causes this problem is the very high ownership of cars. Many people own more than one car. Many roads are being gridlocked for many minutes or sometimes even hours. Also lots of shops , services and offices are located in the CBD so people want to get to them, so the roads are congested.

  2. Changes in Transport 1750-1900

    Around 1750, most businesses such as mines and potteries were considering building canals to carry their goods as it would be cheaper, not having to pay turnpike tolls. Canal engineering It was, however, quite hard to engineer a canal. The bed must be completely level and lined with kneaded clay to make it waterproof.

  1. Does the Bentalls Shopping Centre in Kingston Upon Thames meet the needs of the ...

    for everyone's needs, whether it would be a school child or working housewife/full time mother running a family. Large varieties of shops all in one area make shopping a quicker and easier process. During the shopping hours you may also want to meet up with partners, friends or colleagues and have lunch.

  2. For the purpose of this dissertation, I will be evaluating:Procedures implemented to improve road ...

    Discussing aspects of what could be done to strengthen roads / traffic safety. Research into future plans that may be put into operation, discuss their pros and cons. Discuss how the local authorise can he help make the roads more safer example creating more 20mph zones.

  1. Park and Ride debate for the Cheddar Gorge.

    Another group of people with a strong argument in favour is The National Trust. The National Trust owns the North side of the gorge and believes that the gorge must be preserved for future generations. It has closed some of its car parks next to the cliffs as part of its "duty of care responsibility" to the visitor's safety.

  2. Settlement Hierarchy Project

    For the towns/villages of Newport, Caldicot, Magor and Rogiet, I drew proportional pie charts on a base map of the area. I constructed horizontal scale of the number of shops which would enable me to make the pie charts proportional.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work