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According to Harris and Butterworth (2002) "We can view adolescence as the period that most flexibly combines biological, social and historical factors" (p324) examine some of those factors and explain how they relate to the experience of adolescents in e

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Introduction

According to Harris and Butterworth (2002) "We can view adolescence as the period that most flexibly combines biological, social and historical factors" (p324) examine some of those factors and explain how they relate to the experience of adolescents in education and everyday life. In this essay I will explore how adolescence is an arrangement of biological, social and historical factors as Harris and Butterworth suggests. To do this I shall first describe the biological influences that affect an adolescent. I shall explore how puberty ad hormonal imbalances can affect a teenager's behaviour. Hormones play a huge part in the actions of teenagers. To highlight and investigate this I shall explain how and why these hormones affect the teenager. I will then explore how adolescents experience social pressures that can also affect their behaviour in life and at school. Adolescence is recognized as both a cultural/social phenomenon and subsequently has been explored by such psychologists as Freud and Erikson. I will explain their theories about adolescents and how society has had an impact on the development of adolescences. My final part will include the historical factors and implications of prejudices, as well as stereotypes. ...read more.

Middle

According to Frydenberg 1997:103 this new state of individuality leads to the need for independence. This can cause conflict in the family, as often parents still want to "mother" the teenager. Frydenberg 1997:105 explores how this conflict can act as a positive; it can result in the parent "child" relationship growing. It can allow the person to except that their child is growing up. According to Schaffer 2004:314 this conflict stems from the low self-esteem that adolescents suffer from because of their identity crisis. Low self-esteem can affect an adolescent's ability to achieve in schools as they may feel that they have not the ability according to Balk 1995:131. According to Erikson 1959:89 we are in a period of rapid social change and therefore are very important that adults provide a positive role model for adolescents. As role models adults can help the teenager to develop a strong identity. Teachers at school are essential for this as they can provide adolescents with a moral compass when their parents are not around. According to Balk 1995:295 friendships are very important during the adolescent years and play a very significant role in "healthy psychological development" of an individual. ...read more.

Conclusion

There are many theories about what affects the start of puberty these can include nutrition or genetics. Identity crisis can occur during adolescence, Erikson explored the concept of "ego identity" and how adolescents develop a feeling of isolation and this helps to develop an individual identity. This individualism can lead to social exclusion and further isolation. The individualism can also lead to arguments with parents and peers. The argument can be a positive thing as it allows parents to learn to let go of their child and allow them to grow up. Friendships are very important provide stability and someone to talk too. They can relieve stress. Freud explores how adolescents are in constant conflict and how this conflict can affect their social activities. Prejudice and stereotypes are a big problem for teenagers as many adults do this when they meet them. The majority of adults feel that they were never that bad when they were teenagers. There is a growing trend of violence in society and the media, which have a major effect on adolescence. A good example of this is the ASBO and how teenagers are now proud of them and like to show off the number they have. ASBOs have created a new form of peer pressure that teenager must have at least one to fit in. ...read more.

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