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GCSE: International relations 1945-1991

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  1. Notes on the Solidarity movement in Poland.

    * The government used propaganda to cover up the short comings of their industries. * Poland had official trade unions, but as most countries, they were ineffective. How effective was solidarity?: * In the late 1970s, Polish leaders began setting up small, independent, trade unions. Many strikes broke out in 1980. Solidarity (a trade union) grew in strength over the next 6 months. * July 1980: Government increases the price of meat which results in strikes. * August 1980: Workers at Gdansk ship yard (led by Lech Walesa) put forward 21 demands to the government.

    • Word count: 1495
  2. What Caused the Cold War And Who Was To Blame?

    The USA was Democracy and the USSR was Communist. Communism believed in equality, which everyone should be equal. The government controlled many aspects of people's lives. There was strong censorship, and they were against individual profit making. Capitalism believed in freedom. There were free elections held, and the individuals are allowed to make profits and own lands. The two beliefs were against each other, so it was impossible that the two could have any long-term good relationships. The two sides not only had different beliefs, but different aims as well. After the World War II, Germany was split into four zones between Britain, France, USA and Russia.

    • Word count: 1054
  3. Falklands war question. Factors that helped the British win.

    This meant that the ships, as well as the supplies and replacement could arrive promptly at Falklands before the Winter arrived which would turn the sea bumpy, possibly with icebergs, increasing the possibility of ships sinking, losing masses of equipment. This was added on by the fact that the diplomacy put pressure on the Argentinians. The UN passed on resolution 502 to Argentina, encouraging their withdrawal because the UN wanted Britain and Argentina to have a diplomatic solution. This made Argentina thought that they were encircled by the world and was not supported by anybody which made them feel isolated

    • Word count: 1563
  4. How did the Village of Deir Yassin come to be Fought Over in 1948 and Why do Sources A and B Differ on who was to Blame for the Arab Flight from the Village and Other Parts of Palestine at that time?

    This intention was promised in the MacMahon Letter in 1915, which said that Britain would "support the independence of the Arabs". The Arabs accepted British help, in the form of training from T. E. Lawrence (more commonly known as Lawrence of Arabia). Yet promises were also made to the Jews about obtaining a national Jewish state in order to try and tempt the USA into the war. There were a lot of Jews in America and Britain hoped that if they told the Zionists, Jews who wanted a national homeland, that the Jews could have a homeland, they would put pressure on America to join the war.

    • Word count: 1876
  5. There has been a significant Palestinian refugee problem for the last fifty years. Do these sources allow you to come to a firm conclusion about who or what is responsible for this problem?

    At the 1978 peace talks at Camp David, Israeli and Egyptian Presidents agreed that Israel would withdraw from Sinai. Though this helped the refugees who were in Egypt, the refugees and other Arab fundamentalists assassinated President Sadat, of Egypt, for recognising Israel as a state and negotiating with it. Since 1988, the majority of Palestinian refugees have begun to see Israel as a state however other countries, like Lebanon, and splinter groups, like Hamas, continue to be violent towards Israel. This stopped a lot of terrorism for a short time but in 2006, Hamas won the majority of votes in a Palestinian election and so became the ruling party.

    • Word count: 1669
  6. Explain the part played by external pressure (for example, economic sanctions and international isolation in sport) in the fight against apartheid and minority rule in South Africa?

    A consumer boycott is when individuals refuse to buy products from a certain place, individual or country. This is usually done for a very long while because it has long term affects. Examples include the US-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, the Soviet-led boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, and the movement that advocated "disinvestment" in South Africa during the 1980s in opposition to the country's apartheid regime. Major trading partners such as Britain, Germany, USA and Japan did not want to do sanctions because South Africa produced vital minerals and boycotting against the country would mean that their companies would lose investments.

    • Word count: 1075
  7. The USSR under Khrushchev and Brezhnev

    For this reason Stalin decided to increase the production of grain in Russia. To do this he first ended the New Economical Policy, created by Lenin, which Stalin did not like as it allowed farmers to sell their products and get richer. Due to this policy many farmers were now Kulaks who owned their own lands and employed other farmers. Stalin hated these 'rich peasants' and wanted to destroy them for these reason when he ended with the NEP he decided to send the Kulaks to labour camps, Gulags, and to new industrial cities in Siberia.

    • Word count: 1613
  8. United States vs. Soviet Union: 1980's

    The leader for the sixteen years beforehand into 1980 was a man by the name of Leonid Brezhnev. His doctrine for combating Western Influence was, "When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned, but a common problem and concern of all socialist countries." Now in the 1980's, the Soviet War in Afghanistan has just started to unfold. The Soviets were supporting the communist government of Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, which were trying to crush the U.S.

    • Word count: 1392
  9. Deng and the Gang of Four

    Mao would have like Deng's new ways as it showed it increased economical strength and it will adapt new customs. It restored market economy and opened China to foreign trade, which will help them catch up to USA. Deng was able to implement his strategies as he convinced the people that he was a supporter of Mao and just editing his errors. (5) Peasants were encouraged to sell to any surplus for free for their own profit. Farmers could return back to farms and it-opened China to foreign trade, Deng restored a market economy and make profit.

    • Word count: 1498
  10. THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD 1958-62

    The people were not allowed to talk badly about the party. People weren't allowed to think differently and were very restricted. An eight-hour, six-day working week was introduced, workers received one week's paid holiday a year and up to three week's family visiting holiday. c) economic control? They were expected to contribute to the Great Leap Forward in small and big projects. The Backyard Steal Campaign had every little village have a steal furnace, which then produced 11 million tones of steel, which was not expected. Peasants were restricted in making extra money.

    • Word count: 1212
  11. Why did the Cold War break out between the United States and the Soviet Union between 1945 and 1948

    The communists believed that everyone was equal and they believed in revolution that would encourage communism in other countries. However, it was different in capitalistic countries; influence was spread to other countries to encourage trade and investments. Because of these ideological differences, there was so much rivalry going on between the East and the West. Rivalry between the communists and capitalists started way back in 1917, at the time of Bolshevik revolution when Lenin established a communist government. Countries, which believed in capitalism, feared the expansion of the communism into the Eastern and later into the Western Europe, so they

    • Word count: 1119
  12. Atomic Bomb

    Truman wanted to end the war at the earliest possible moment. This was the reason that Truman had shared with the public, that he wanted to end the war quickly and save as many lives as possible. Through the bombing he had achieved personal gains. This means that no land invasion would have been necessary, which would have been extremely costly, not just in terms of American lives but also the Japanese dead. Though being one of the biggest providers of natural resources in the world, there would have been a lot of money wasted if the war had dragged on, making weaponry and vehicles rather than productive use in building things such as new buildings.

    • Word count: 1151
  13. Reasons for the end of the cold war

    At worst, as in the Soviet Union, China, and Cambodia, to name a few, communism resulted in genocide. State ownership and planning of the entire economy failed, often tragically, to achieve sustained economic development. The massive industrialization efforts of communist states contributed little to development or wealth. Central planning failed to create dynamic, profitable industries, infrastructure, or agriculture. Instead, what happened in every communist country was a tremendous misallocation or waste of human, natural, technology, and financial resources. Soviet statistics about becoming the world's largest producers of steel, for example, were often grossly inflated and actual production often grossly misallocated.

    • Word count: 1003
  14. Why did the relationship between the USA and USSR change between 1975 and 1990

    The leaders also agreed to a declaration of human rights, all countries concerned would allow freedom of speech, religion, movement and freedom from unfair arrest. The US hoped this would mean more freedom for those under communist control. However, the Communists were becoming more and more confident due to Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos all turning communist so the USA was unsure as to what the Russians would do next. The USSR had no intentions of keeping its promises made in Helsinki.

    • Word count: 1776
  15. Why did a Cold War develop between the USA and the USSR in the years 1945-49?

    During the five months before the meeting, America had elected a new President, Harry Truman after Roosevelt's death in April. The effect of this created new tension between the 'Superpowers,' as communication and agreement became a lot more difficult. This was because Truman's beliefs and ideas were completely different to those of Roosevelt's as he distrusted Stalin and believed that his intentions were to take over the whole of Europe. He thought this because Stalin had effectively controlled 8 Eastern European countries with his troops which included Hungary, Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia by the time of the conference; however he described his actions as 'liberating' them from Nazism.

    • Word count: 1049
  16. Did the PLO achieve anything using terrorism

    Its goal was 'the liberation of Palestine through armed struggle'. After the humiliating defeat in the Six Day War for the Arabs in 1967, the PLO became the 'voice of the Palestinians', and successes such as the defence of a village called Karama by Fatah and Jordanian forces against Israel helped to gain support and saw levels of recruitment increase rapidly. In 1969 Fatah's leadership, led by Yasser Arafat, became more prominent in the running of the PLO and Yasser Arafat was elected as chairman of the PLO in 1969.

    • Word count: 1047
  17. Beatles Question 2

    However instead of two personalities it is four. Hence, the name Quad. This is emphasised when he takes drugs. However, Jimmy is a fictional character who stars in a film with over emphasised story of actual events made by The Who. This lessons the reliability that the youth in the 60's lacked morality. Quadrophenia again could show a lack of Authority in the 1960's when the Mods and Rockers regularly travelled to seaside towns on a bank holiday weekend. This always caused trouble. Riots were regular in Brighton, Margate and Scarborough.

    • Word count: 1261
  18. Why did the Suez Canal crisis of 1956 take place?

    One of the most important if not the most important reason was the nationalization of the Suez Canal on 26th July 1956. This was seen as a very big threat by the British and French. As they relied heavily on the Suez Canal for oil if Nasser took control of the dam he could control the supply of oil to Britain and France. This was caused due to the soviet involvement in Egypt. The soviets were supplying the Egyptians with arms which was interpreted by the US in an offensive way, as they believed that soviet were getting involved in the Middle East.

    • Word count: 1161
  19. How the vietnam war affected america

    By looking at Source B, we can also see that these Vietnam Veterans, when they were soldiers in Vietnam, did terrible things. For example, they "cut off heads", and "personally raped"; these quotes show how monstrous they had been towards the Vietnamese, and how heartless they were: they had no feelings. All of these events had happened during their term in the Vietnam War, and after they had been trained, as in Source A. This shows that it was America that had turned their own people like this, as John Kerry said; "The country doesn't know it yet...created a monster",

    • Word count: 1741
  20. Vietnam was a Racist War

    Mohammed Ali had opposed the war, as he said that; "...the Vietcong never called me a n****r", showing that he would have been unwilling to fight the Vietnamese for a country that had never respected him in his life. He means that what would have been the point in fighting for a country that wants to give freedom to another country, when freedom cannot even be found in their own country. Another point is that the 1960s was the era of black people fighting for their equal rights, so there were many riots.

    • Word count: 1313
  21. Why has there been conflict between Israel and her Arab neighbours since 1973?

    The state of Israel was created and Palestinians fled to refugee camps in neighbouring Arab states. Therefore, Jews believe that the land is rightfully theirs as it is their homeland and was given to them by God whereas the Palestinians believe it is their land because that's where they've always lived. Israel and her Arab neighbours are also in conflict over the 'Occupied Territories', which Israel took from three Arab States in 1967. This creates conflict because yet again other countries believe it was their land.

    • Word count: 1397
  22. Discussing Hiroshima.

    . . and left prints of the shadows left by its light." Over 2,500 yards away from the center, a shadow was found that had been "projected by the handle of a gas pump." There were also a few "vague human silhouettes" found near the center. Over 62,000 buildings were destroyed, and nearly 6,000 were devastated beyond repair. "In the heart of the city. . . only five modern buildings. . . could be used again without major repairs." Houses had been knocked down, whole city blocks had collapsed, fire engulfed everything, and "gas storage tanks went up in a tremendous burst of flames."

    • Word count: 1587
  23. Explain why the USA and the Soviet Union did not trust eachother after the war

    All three of the leaders go on well at Yalta, but the civility between the three was only really apparent because of their desire to defeat Hitler, not because they actually got along. The memories of what happened during the First World War were still fresh in the back of everyone's minds, just waiting to be bought back up again. Five months later the final wartime conference was held in Potsdam on the outskirts of Berlin. Here you could tell the allies relations had deteriorated visibly.

    • Word count: 1833
  24. Why did the relations between superpowers worsen between 1945-1949?

    It wanted to take huge reparations for the damage done during the war, and set up a buffer of friendly states around Russia to prevent another invasion in the future. All of these fears and differences created great tension between the two powers and became one of the reasons for the Cold War. Due to the disagreements about the future of Europe between the USA and the USSR, the Yalta and Potsdam conferences were called to help the Allies decide what would happen to Europe, and in particular Germany, at the end of the Second World War.

    • Word count: 1506
  25. Isolation and Lack of Love in I'm the King of the Castle

    She becomes more and more happy throughout the book, as Mr Hooper pays for "cocktail parties" and shopping trips to London. It is not her love for Mr Hooper which makes her ignore Charles's declarations of his "hate" for Mr Hooper's, nor her affection for Edmund which prompts her to bring him gifts when he is in hospital, but rather her overwhelming need to be given attention and comfort. Mrs Kingshaw tries to convince herself she is a good mother who loves her son and attempts to keep up pretences and stick to all the clich�s as she feels she must.

    • Word count: 1202

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

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