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GCSE: International relations 1945-1991
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It was also decided that there should be de-nazification of Germany (eradicating any presence of Nazi rule) through holding trials where war criminals would be punished for their crimes during the war (Nuremberg trials.). iii) Describe the key features of the Marshall Plan (1947) (5) A key feature of the Marshall Plan which was set up in 1947, was as a European Recovery programme where billions of dollars were given to European countries to recover from post war damage to their country. For example, France's economy had been destroyed by Germany's occupation, and Britain was exhausted by the war effort.
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However the USA was not as badly damaged as hoped, and was outraged by what they saw as a cruel and unprovoked attack. It can be argued that America's thirst for revenge was one of the reasons for dropping the atom bombs on Japan. This reason was public in that the American public knew about Pearl Harbor and there was a general thirst for revenge, but it was not put forward as a reason by the American government, so in that way it was more private. Another public reason was that the Japanese treated US prisoners of war very badly.
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In 1945, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Why did the Americans decide to carry out these attacks? Explain your answer.
Truman had a rude and abrasive attitude towards Molotov, calling him a liar and a deal breaker (over Poland). This attitude was shocking to Molotov, who had never been spoken to in such an undiplomatic way before. This meant that tensions were high between Russia and the USA. The USA were also concerned over what the Russian post-war ambitions would be; they feared and hated communism and were concerned that the Russians may have expansionist ideas. Due to these factors over the tension with Russia, the Americans had more reason to want drop the bomb: they wanted to open up
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The Palestinian Authority is now run by Hamas, which has rejected a full recognition of Israel and refused to give their backing to the previous agreements. It is in a struggle for power with the Fatah movement led by the Palestinian President, Mahmoud Abbas, who took over after the death of Yasser Arafat. Jerusalem has been a big talking point in the conflict in the Middle East. Jerusalem has changed hands many times, because of it's religious significance and has been occupied by Jewish, Christian and Muslim conquerors.
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The Western countries such as the USA and the Britain were a democratic state. They believed in free elections and a right to free speech. In 1922, Russia merged with five neighbouring states to from the Soviet Union. By 1936 Russia added more 5 states. It was obvious that the Soviet Union was rapidly growing. The Soviets didn't agree with the USA and the British's democratic ideas. They ensured the countries in Eastern Europe were communist by rigging elections or throwing out important members of the government.
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"The Long March was a Great Retreat" what evidence is there to support or contradict this interpretation of the Long March?
If 1934 was considered as an isolated year then it would be possible to agree with the question statement that yes, the Long March was a 'Great Retreat'. This can be supported through the other sources. Source B indicates that initially the Long March was a retreat as they were 'getting out of the bases' and had to 'break through one ring of fortifications and then another'. This can also be supported through my own research, which has revealed the CCP had decided a 'strategic retreat would be best to avoid annihilation'.
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Either way, several factors, which concern both the Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang, influenced the outcome of the Chinese Civil War. The main reason is that, though the CCP had little weaponry and machinery, they achieved victory over the KP through superior military strategy (from their leader), the implementation of social and political programmes and by mainly overcoming their weaknesses due to the determination of Mao. At the start of the Civil War in 1927, the KP always had the upper hand.
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Nasser is shown as a bad person and 'not a man who can be trusted.' Here he is saying that like in World War 2 appeasement was not the answer and so should not be used as a tactic in this case. At this time it could be presumed the British wanted peace, because of the recent events and their outcomes. Eden says what he had to, to make the people believe in his plan unless they wanted a repeat of World War 2. Study sources B and C How useful are these two sources as evidence of Egyptian public opinion during the Suez Crisis?
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At present there are 442 nuclear reactors in operation around the world. Are Nuclear Power Plants worth it? Nuclear power plants use the amazing power of the atom to generate electricity with a very low fuel cost and much less pollution than fossil fuel plants. However, the planning, building, and operating of a nuclear power plant is a long, costly, and very complex process. When the idea for nuclear power plants first came out, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) claimed that it would be a cheap way of generating electricity.
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Critical Analysis: Comparing the film Thirteen Days Historical Credibility and Accuracy to the actual Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962
There are two ways to look at this motion picture: as a thriller and as a history. Thirteen Days undoubtedly succeeds as a thriller, however the question at hand is can it be an adequate substitute for historical accuracy on this event? The verdict on its historical accuracy is mixed. The movie modifies many small points and a few large ones. In most instances, these inconsistencies are basically the result of compressing into a two-hour film, a thirteen day crisis that had major twists more than once every half-hour. But some numerous amounts of small aspects in particular in Thirteen Days, hugely distort reality, thus, leading to the conclusion, that Thirteen Days can be seen no more than an engaging first-class thriller rather than a substitute for the authentic historical event.
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As a result of this the USA broke down diplomatic relations in January 1961 with Cuba. Castro became paranoid at the prospect of a US invasion (though this wasn't to happen). It was getting to a stage though where the US were not going to tolerate a Soviet influenced state so close to home. In April 1961 President J.F Kennedy supplied arms, equipment and transport for 1,400 soldiers to invade Cuba and get rid of Fidel Castro. They landed at the Bay of Pigs and so began the Bay of Pigs Fiasco.
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These actions may have prevented a future organised rising against him both through giving benefits to or intimidate those who might have joined it and the elimination of those who might have organised it. Another method to stay in power was to control the media through various kinds of censorships and through intimidation, psychological control and informers. To control the opposition, Castro also early removed many civil liberties, as the freedoms of debate and expression. Both inside and outside Cuba, very little was known about executions and other violence against the opposition, for instance, although in 1981, Amnesty International reported that there were 250 long-term political prisoners in Cuba.
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More photos from the following days showed that some of the sites were finished whilst others were still being built. Army experts said that the most advanced of the bases could launch missiles in just one week. There were also reports of around 20 Soviet ships sailing towards Cuba carrying nuclear missiles. Kennedy was informed of the situation on the 16th of October. He had 5 options of things to do in this situation. One option was to do nothing that was disbanded as to do nothing would be a sign of weakness.
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America responded by beginning development of a more powerful hydrogen bomb, and an arms race continued developing. Neither side particularly wanted to start war
Then in August 1945, atomic bombs are dropped on both Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This was the start of a major conflict between all countries involved especially the USSR and United states. In the west, it seemed as if Russia was intent on dominating the whole of Europe, an impression strengthened by a speech Stalin made in 1946 when he said that communism and capitalism could never live peacefully together. Churchill's response, a famous speech in which he claimed that 'From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the continent' and called for a western alliance against communism merely helped to make relations worse.
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There is no mention of an immediate delay between the discussion and the write up of the protocol. Bulgaria 1925 (most useful for exam) There is no obvious evidence that the league were slow to act. When Bulgaria appealed for help in 1925, there was no mention of a delay and the league of nations proceeded to act and condemned Greece to pay compensation. Although Greece argued it did comply with the rules. ACTING IN THEIR OWN INTEREST, NOT THEE LEAGUE'S Vilna 1920 Britain or France, in the end, did not want to send their troops to force Poland out of Vilna because of personal problems (France did not want a potential war enemy or sway Poland as Germany's ally and Britain didn't want to go alone).
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Both sides had the H.bomb and there had been numerous clashes abroad, including the Korean War and the Russian invasion of Hungary and Poland in 1956. An extra problem was introduced in 1959 when Castro seized Cuba.In 1959, America had made their first mistake by withdrawing support from Cuba, when Castro defeated Batista. Castro signed trade agreements with Russia knowing that by supporting the Russians, he will be protected from American invasion. In October 1962, American Aerial photos revealed I.R.B.M's; if they had nuclear warheads they could attack every American city within 2,500 miles.
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Over the next few years, relations between the USA and the USSR seemed to of dramatically improved, but this climb was abruptly halted at the death of the USSR's leader. In 1952, Stalin died, which created a new path way for an improvement in relations between the West, especially the USA and the USSR. However things were going to get worse before they got better. At the end of the Korean War there was a dramatic fall in the relations between the USA and the USSR.
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Native Americans were made to feel inferior and the white Europeans looked on them as 'non Christian' and even satanic. These were just excuses to justify the possession of their land and so not to recompense for seized territory. The natives were gradually killed and pushed westward inland. Many natives died from the flu spread by the British because they were not immune to it, the British also exploited this factor and spread it through the distribution of blankets smothered in the virus.
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However Stalin felt threatened by the West's opposing view, and this was increased by the fact that Britain and the USA merged their zones in 1948, with plans to include the French zone. Economic recovery was also increased with reformation of the currency in the Western zones. Stalin felt that the West was directly opposing him, and he very much feared the prospect of a strong Germany. He particularly resented the fact that Western forces could be inside his zone and possibly influence people that were supposedly under his control.
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Roosevelt strengthened Stalin's distrust at the Yalta conference by not clearly defining what was meant by a sphere of influence. This meant that Stalin believed he had total control over the East, whilst Roosevelt only wanted Russia to have an influence. However Roosevelt was not the only one to cause suspicion at Yalta. Stalin insisted that the Russian border should be moved into Poland, despite the uncertainty of Roosevelt. Russia took over the government in countries that were freed from German control, as well as setting up a communist government in Poland, which went against the terms that had been agreed at Yalta.
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Both the west and USSR saw the common threat of Hitler and both on the defence tried to strike deals with him. But these acts of negotiation gave off very different messages to each other. Both the USA and USSR saw one another dealing with enemy of Hitler, in an attempt to gang up against each other. This therefore further increased suspicion. It was only when Hitler implemented operation Barbarossa when the two sides became allied. Stalin didn't refer to this as an alliance but as an 'anti-nazi coalition'.
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The result was that the U.S expelled Cuba from the organisation of American states. The U.S.A thought that Cuba had become a soviet satellite state, which meant that they thought that Cuba had, became communist on there own doorstep. This made the crises worse as now the U.S was not happy that this was happening and yet again were afraid of a domino theory happening which was were they believed surrounding country's would also fall to communism. Now that the crises was becoming worse the U.S.S.R gave Cuba weapons in which to defend itself these included MIG 21, IL-28, Bombers, S.A.M's and SA-18 missiles.
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It has never been possible to prove this theory in light of conflicting opinions and facts. Such facts as the first offensive manoeuvre when Castro ordered his troops to fire on an American U2 spy plane. It was this event that forced President Kennedy to act in protection of the USA. Apart from the use of Russian missiles to bring down the plane, there is no evidence to prove that Russia was involved in the making of this decision. It is strongly believed that Castro made this decision based on the spur of the moment when the US spy plane entered Cuban air space.
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This increases radiation risks to the workers, and environmental contamination. To obtain uranium, pitchblende goes through complex milling processes so that in the end it can be sold to nuclear reactors, in a form known as yellow cake (with the chemical symbol U3O8). First, pitchblende is grinded in small grains to increase its surface area, preparing it for the leaching process where it will be treated with strong acids. Then water is added to make it easier for the pitchblende to be transported by pumps to where the leaching process with take place.
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In early September Mao's declaration of a Communists Peoples Republic of China sent shockwaves throughout the USA with people believing Stalin was spreading the word of communism and that the President Truman had been to 'soft' on the issue. Many American's now felt that with such a large country falling to communism then the forces of freedom and capitalism seemed under threat. To further add to the USA's dismay in 1949 the USSR makes its first test of the A-bomb meaning it has once again caught up to the USA in the arm's race leading to fears that the USSR would soon match and eventually take over the West in terms of arms production.
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