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GCSE: International relations 1945-1991
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"Describe and explain where applicable the socio-economic, political and environmental factors that influence the residents in the UK and USA."
A member of the EU, it chose to remain outside the European Monetary Union for the time being. Constitutional reform is also a significant issue in the UK. The Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly were established in 1999. Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions.
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Why did relations between the USA and the USSR change in the peroid from the end of the Second World War to the begginning of the Berlin Blockade?
This in turn meant that Stalin now occupied most of Eastern Europe except Yugoslavia Albania and Greece, in a quest to protect the heart of the USSR from another invasion to reoccur. This was called the Buffer Zone. Next in the long history between the West and East, was that the prime Minister of the U.K, Winston Churchill, made a speech addressing this problem. There were mixed reactions to this. To begin with, the speech was generally outlining what was actually going on in the East so that Westerners would get a good Perspective of the goings on in the East of the continent.
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Tyskland m�tte okkuperes og det ble delt i 4 okkupasjonssoner (Sovjet, Storbritannia, Frankrike og USA). Berlin ble ogs� delt. Andre konsekvenser for tyskland var at landet ble nedrustet industri konsern ble oppl�st, forbud mot nazi. organisasjoner og Sovjet fikk 1/2 av krigsskade erstatningene. Hele �st Europa var n� viktig for Sovjetunionens tilgang til r�stoff og teknologi. �st Tyskland ble t�mt for ressurser og krigsfanger ble brukt som gratis arbeidskraft. Berlinblokkaden startet med at det ble innf�rt ny valuta i vest tyskland, selv om landet egentlig skulle behandles som en enhet. Denne valutaen gjaldt ogs� vest berlin.
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The first of these is the Cold War. This was a battle between communism and capitalism and the biggest countries that represented these views, capitalist USA and communist USSR. After World War 2 USA was very anti communist and the USSR became very anti capitalist. The president of the USA then decided that any country in need of help and was under the threat of communism would get this help from the USA. This was known as the Truman Doctrine, Martial aid would also be given to these countries to encourage them away from communism.
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Therefore Germany was divided into 4 sectors, an American, a French, a British and a Soviet. The same was done with Berlin which was in the Soviet sector. Berlin was divided because it was seen as an important city for Germany and an 'Oasis' for the eastern world. Stalin thought that the Allies used their areas as a provocative act where they would show how close they could get to Russia. Stalin consequently decided to set-up a Blockade in Berlin where he cut electricity supply and blocked roads leading towards and out of the Soviet Section.
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Although the two sides had agreed to control their respective sides of Germany and the capital Berlin, tension and unrest between the two sides was rampant. This led to the USSR refusing to allow supplies to be carried through their territory to West Berlin by the Western allies. The only way to get supplies to West Berlin was to airlift the supplies in, and so this is what the Western allies did, in huge quantities. When the USSR realised that there was no way they could stop the West from airlifting supplies into West Berlin they agreed to open up
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This was the main reason America wanted to hold onto Cuba, and not give them independence. America signed the Treaty of Paris on the 10th of December 1898 and the decision did not incorporate the agreement of the islanders. However, Cuba was allowed to elect their own government on 2May 20 1902 when Cuba was declared a republic. Even though Cuba was considered a republic, the United States had the right to intervene at any time 3'for the preservation of Cuban independence'.
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Were contemporaries correct in regarding President Kennedy as the saviour of the Western World after the Cuban missile crisis?
He was shot down and kept prisoner for two years. He was released in 1962 in return for the release of Russian spies over in the USA. Although some of these incidents drew the countries further and further apart, one incident, and probably the most dangerous and famous incident during the time of the cold war, was 'The Cuban Missile Crisis'. This incident was the closest the world has ever come to a nuclear war. At this time, the USA and the USSR were developing nuclear weapons.
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When he talked about "free elections," he meant something quite different from Roosevelt. He would never have agreed to the election of non-communists in countries occupied by the Red Army, only elections to elect different members of the Communist Party. He had no intention of leaving the USSR open to attack. He wanted to create a buffer zone of friendly communist states between Russian and Germany. Decisions made 1. To divide Germany into four zones of military occupation. 2. To give all the Allies access to the capital, Berlin, which was in the Soviet zone. Therefore, it too was divided into four sectors of military occupation. 3. To make Germany pay reparations. 4.
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To what extent did the decade of the 1960s launch a process of fundamental change in relation to the United States of America?
The youth were no longer happy to be images of previous generations but young people wanted change. The changes that did occur affected education, values, lifestyles, laws, and entertainment and these 'revolutionary' changes are still occurring today. There were many events that caused change within America and these not only affected the obvious historical factors such as governments and world relations but also affected the social structure and nature of America. However, there were several major events that caused change in the 60s and had far reaching effects to the later 20th century. One of the major events that occurred in the decade in question was the development of relations between the United States of America and the Soviet Union.
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I am investigating both sides of the situation on Cuba with the missiles, which were in range of USA, I am exploring the information presented in sources showing sides of what happened in that time and will explain my view of the situation.
This also included better pay and giving the people more rights for the welfare of their country. America ignored Fidel Castro and then they learnt that they should not have ignored him and should have paid more attention to the work he was achieving in Cuba. Fidel Castro had made all the people in Cuba work for this revolution everyone had joined up to revolt which made America pay attention. Once America took notice off Fidel Castro it created friction between America and Cuba because they had found out that there were missiles on Cuba that could reach most of
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The split between North and South was very close to the 38th Parallel, so it was nicknamed the 38th Parallel. 3) The North side was Communist, which both USSR and China supported. 4) The South side was Capitalist, which the USA supported. 5) The North wanted to make the whole of Korea turn to Communism, so they prepared a war, which the USSR would supply weapons, and China would supply troops. 6) North Korea's leader was Kim IL Sung and the South Korean leader was Syngman Rhee.
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These hydrogen cells use hydrogen gas to propel the pistons, which in turn moves the vehicle. These hydrogen cells are much better for the environment than petrol in that the exhaust from the combustion of hydrogen is water - so instead of cars belching out dangerous chemicals like carbon monoxide, etc in their exhaust, water would trickle from their exhaust pipes. Drawbacks from the use of hydrogen cells in cars are that they are hugely expensive, heavy and are not as efficient as petrol engines. So far only one production car has been created using the hydrogen cell - that was by BMW in Germany and there are only 5 such models ion the world.
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The problem at these conferences where that the Soviets and the Americans and British wanted different things especially regarding Germany. The first conference was held at Yalta in February 1945 and it was agreed that Germany was to be split into four but this meant that the capital Berlin would be deep in the soviet zone. It was also agreed that Berlin would be divided into four. However the Soviets felt that if they could take control of Berlin then they could take control of the whole of Eastern Europe.
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The opportunity of access into the Western hemisphere would have been appealing to the Russian leader, as it would clearly go against the wishes of the USA, who had not long previously had very close connections with the small country. The Berlin Wall was also a cause of the Cuban missile crisis in recognition of the confidence Khruschev gained in respect to the lack of response shown by America. The fact that Kennedy made no attempt to halt the building of the wall suggested that he was a weak president to Khruschev; this would have contributed to his decision to aid Cuba.
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These policies then went ahead and he cut back on military spending, closed down the Cominform, changed Stalingrad to Volgograd, reduced the KGB and released many political prisoners. He also said the" two ways for Russia was either a peaceful co-existence with America or the most destructive war in history". This sent a very powerful message to the other world leaders as it gave a moment of future peace. If peace became apparent though it gave advantages to communism making victory inevitable.
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When researching on Valdes, I found many similarities between Valdes and the themes and heroines of her books. For example, both Yocandra and Valdes are born on the same day and live in Havana at some time. They both have contempt for the Communist party. They both marry someone who's against the Revolution. Critics have said that Valdes often manifests her self in the books she writes. The author grew up in a communist atmosphere and therefore does approach the writing of her books in a biased fashion, mostly looking down on the Cuban government. Yocandra in the Paradise of Nada, by Zoe Valdes, is about a young Cuban woman retelling her past and explaining the present.
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Another major argument put forward for maintaining slavery and prolonging emancipation was that Cuba could not attract sufficient white immigrants for agricultural jobs. This situation had resulted in spiralling prices for labourers, and a rising daily wage for hired hands. Therefore, slavery was deemed both unavoidable and cheaper. Economic interests at the time greatly accounted for the developing negative attitudes towards slavery in the Spanish colonies, particularly in Cuba. Two creoles, Jose Morales Lemus and Miguel Aldama realized that slavery was fast becoming outdated as an economical system of agriculture.
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Examine the ways that the author of ‘Crackling day’ explores the themes of fear, power and courage. What messages is the author trying to communicate to the reader through the characters’ attitudes?
"Were helpless victims of the bitter cold" Also they face hunger on the way to buy the crackling as well. "Hunger was an enemy too, but one with whom we could come to terms with" The fear of hunger also has a positive side too: "It gave our moeroga a feast-like quality" As well as these harsh conditions they also have to fear the wrath of the white people, the white people always had authority over the black people at this time.
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Were contemporaries correct in regarding President Kennedy as the saviour of the western world after the Cuban Missile Crisis?
The USA and USSR had a moratorium on the tests of nuclear weapons. However, on 30th August, 1961, Khrushchev broke the 3 year agreement and started testing nuclear weapons. John F. Kennedy responded with his own controlled nuclear tests both underground and in the atmosphere. Source A2 shows a nuclear-powered submarine. Just one indication that the arms race was quickly getting out of hand. The two super-powers realised this, as stated in the S.R. Gibbons book 'The Cold War'. Gibbons wrote "Their main concern could only be prevention of nuclear war". This is a secondary source and it is not quite clear whether it is opinion or fact.
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This act completely paralysed the Cuban economy, the country unable to generate energy. On June 27, the U.S. Congress began to push through an amended Sugar Act, which called to eliminate Cuba's sugar quota in whole. Taking the only open option to avert catastrophe, Cuba nationalized the Texaco oil refineries on June 29 with Esso and Shell following on July 1. On July 3, 1960, the United States suspended trading sugar with Cuba through the Sugar Act, cutting off over 80 percent of Cuban exports to the United States and again crippling the Cuban economy.
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It also states that air strikes were being considered, but Kennedy must have turned this option down. I believe this is because Kennedy didn't want to provoke a war with Cuba and, more importantly, the USSR. An air strike also could not destroy the additional missiles being sent to Cuba by ship. In the end, Kennedy decided on a naval blockade of Cuba. This made Kennedy appear to be decisive, and he wanted Americans to know this, as shown by source D. The main advantage of the blockade was that it would force the USSR to make the next move, although this also meant the conflict was now with the USSR, as well as Cuba.
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The USA had failed to keep Kai Shek, a nationalist, in power. Their fears were increased when in 1949 the USSR developed an atomic bomb and in 1950 signed a treaty of friendship with China. The Cold War tensions shifted in their location from Europe to Asia. Between 1948 and 1950 thousands were killed in clashes between North and South Korea. In June 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea and within three months the South Korean army was pushed into a small area in the south called the Pusan Pocket.
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Explain why relations between the USA and Cuba changed after 1959 and how the actions of the USA and the USSR led to the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962.
This greatly alarmed the Americans: communism was now at their back door. In January 1961 JF Kennedy took over U.S. presidency. Shortly after he took over the CIA informed Kennedy that they were planning an invasion of Cuba. In January 1961 the CIA and 1400 Cuban exiles organised a plan to overthrow Castro. The USA and provided transport, weapons and military advisers. Due to poor information and conduct the Bay of Pigs invasion was a failure. Most of the rebels were captured and killed. This failure operation embarrassed Kennedy and the USA and made Castro a national hero.
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Castro began to receive assistance from the USSR, trading Cuba?s sugar and oil for machinery from Russia. Russia soon became Cuba?s main trading partner and in 1961, Castro announced he had become communist. Since Castro became Cuba?s dictator, relations and communication between the US and Cuba had deteriorated and in January 1961, all diplomatic relations between the two nations had been broken off. However, it wasn?t until April the same year that there was an actual display of conflict between the 2 which became known as, ?The Bay of Pigs?. Shortly after he became US President Kennedy was informed by the CIA that with the assistance of Castro Cuban exiles, it was planning on invading Cuba.
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